IFAD views as the principal cause of poverty, especially in rural areas, not scarcity of productive resources so much as secure access to them. IFAD argues that in order to secure such access, which is equitable, efficient and sustainable, it must be market-based, subject to the following qualifications:
- The poor must have open access to markets (input, output and services). Markets at all levels must provide a level playing field.
- Since markets in themselves do not favour the poor, institutions and policies should be enacted and enforced that ensure market inclusiveness and non-concentration of power in the hands of the few.
- The poor must be organized into effective groups, or, where existing, such groups should be strengthened so that they can ensure that pro-poor policies are enforced; in the event that they do not exist, ensuring that such policies are enacted.
- Social safety nets, both informal (traditional systems) and formal (modern, state supported), should be revitalized or developed to take care of those who “slip through the gaps”, as will likely happen, no matter how careful one is.
- Delivering public, private and semi-private goods – Institutional issues and implementation arrangements
- A field practitioner's guide: Institutional and organizational analysis and capacity strengthening
- Strengthening smallholder institutions and organizations toolkit
- International Year of Cooperatives 2012
- A Source Book: Institutional and organizational analysis for pro-poor change: Meeting IFAD’s millennium challenge
- International Year of Cooperatives 2012: Agricultural Cooperatives: Paving the way for food security and rural development
- Good practices in building innovative rural institutions to increase food security
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Guidance notes for institutional analysis in rural development programmes
- What does institutional analysis address?
- Understanding poor people and their livelihoods
- Focusing on results
- Mapping action arenas
- Understanding the institutional context
- Understanding power and processes
- Developing strategies for institutional change
- Using institutional analysis
- Scaling up note: Smallholder institutions and organizations
In the mountainous terrain of Azad Jammu and Kashmir in Pakistan, it isn't easy to start a small business.