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ACCB: Association Centrafricaine des Commerçants en Bétail (The Central African Association of Livestock Traders, Central African Republic).

ACIAR: The Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research.
Adaptation: The adjustment of an organism to a new or changing environmental condition.

African Swine Fever: A highly contagious viral disease of pigs. It is characterised by fever, refusal to eat, foul-smelling diarrhoea, eye discharge, distressed breathing and general weakness. The disease may be acute, particularly in young pigs, and death may occur in few days. The disease may also take a chronic form, mainly in older pigs, which remain ill for a long period and lose condition. Ticks transmit the disease.

Agroforestry: Land use system in which woody perennials are grown for wood production with agricultural crops, with or without animal production.

Agro-silvo-pastoral: Land use system in which woody perennials are grown with agricultural crops, forage crops, and livestock production.

Aimag: Province in Mongolia.

Alternate stocking: The repeated grazing and resting of forage using two paddocks in succession.

ANBC: Association Nationale des Bouchers Centrafricains (The National Association of Central African Butchers, Central African Republic).

ANDE: Agence nationale pour le Développement de l'Élevage (The Livestock Development Agency, Central African Republic)

Animal Unit (AU): Considered to be one mature cow (1000 lb, 455kg) either dry or with a calf up to 6 months of age, with an average daily forage consumption of 15 kg of dry matter. Livestock which consume more or less forage than the standard animal unit, because of kind, class, or size are rated on an animal unit equivalent (e.g. 1300 lb cow = 1.3 AU; 1 sheep = 0.1 AU)

Animal unit day: The amount of dry forage consumed by one animal unit per 24-hour period. Animal unit day is used to express the quantity of forage intake for a period of time and may be extrapolated to other time periods, such as week, month, or year.

Annual Plant: A plant that completes its life cycle and dies in 1 year or less.

Anthelmintic: A drug which kills or expels intestinal worms.

Anthrax: An acute, infectious, febrile disease of livestock and man, which often leads to the death of an infected individual. Cattle, sheep, goats etc. are commonly affected by anthrax. Bacteria called Bacillus anthracis causes this disease.

Aquaculture: The raising of plants or animals, as fish or shellfish, in or under a sea, a lake, a river, or another body of water.

Arable: Suitable for cultivation; tillable.

Arid: Applied to a climate or region where rainfall is barely sufficient to support vegetation; deficient in rainfall.

Available forage: That portion of the forage, expressed as weight of forage per unit land area, that is accessible for consumption by a specified kind, class, sex, size, age, and physiological status of grazing animal.

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Bag: Sub-district in Mongolia

Blackleg: An acute, infectious disease of cattle, which is characterised by swelling beneath the skin, due to gas formation in the tissues. It is caused by the bacterium Clostridium chauvei. The infection spreads through food, water and wounds. Penicillin can be used to treat the disease. Vaccination is the most practicable and effective means of protecting individual animal.

Bod: Mongolian livestock unit. 1 bod is equivalent to one cattle or yak, or seven sheep.

Browse: Leaf and twig growth of shrubs, woody vines, trees, cacti, and other non-herbaceous vegetation available for animal consumption.(v) To browse. The consumption of browse in situ by animals.

Brucellosis: A bacterial disease of the reproductive system that causes abortions in mainly cattle, sheep and pigs, although all mammals are susceptible. It is spread via aborted calves, discharges and milk that contaminate pasture, food and water.

BSF: Belgian Survival Fund.

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CAHW: Community Animal Health Worker.

CAR: Central African Republic.

Carrying capacity: The average number of livestock and wildlife that may be sustained on a management unit compatibly with management objectives. It is a function of site characteristics, and management goals and intensity.

CBPP: Contagious Bovine Pleuro-Pneumonia.

Class of livestock: Description of age or sex group for a particular kind of livestock, such as cow, bull, calf, yearling, ewe, ram or lamb.
Climax vegetation: The final vegetation community and highest ecological development of a plant community that emerges after a series of successive vegetative stages. The climax community perpetuates itself indefinitely unless disturbed by outside forces.

CLW: Community Livestock Worker.

Complementary forage: Short-term forage planted to enhance the management and productivity of a ranch.

Congenital: Deformities, diseases etc., that are either present at birth or which being transmitted direct from the parents, show themselves some time after birth.

Contagious Bovine Pleuro-pneumonia (CBPP): Acute pneumonia in cattle with respiratory distress and fever. Morbidity up to 100% and mortality rate up to 50%.

Contamination: Entry of undesirable micro-organisms to some material or object.

Continuous grazing: The grazing of a specific unit throughout a year, growing season, or that part of a year when grazing is feasible.

Continuous stocking: A method of grazing livestock on a specific unit of land where animals have unrestricted and uninterrupted access throughout the time period when grazing is allowed. The length of the grazing period should be defined.

Controlled grazing: Controlled grazing has sometimes been used erroneously to describe increased grazing management. The control imposed is a matter of level or degree and is better described in terms of grazing management and grazing methods.

Cover: (1) The plant or plant parts, living or dead, on the ground surface. (2) The proportional area of ground covered by plants on a stated area.

Cow-calf operation: A livestock operation in which a base breeding herd of mother cows and bulls is maintained. The cows produce a calf crop each year, and the operation keeps some heifer calves from each calf crop for breeding herd replacements. The rest of the calf crop is sold between the ages of 6 and 12 months along with old or non-productive cows and bulls.

Creep grazing: The practice of allowing juvenile animals to graze areas that their dams cannot access at the same time.

Cropland: Land devoted to the production of cultivated crops. May be used to produce forage crops.

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Deferment: Delay of livestock grazing on an area for an adequate period of time to provide for plant reproduction, establishment of new plants, or restoration of vigour.

Desert: Land on which the vegetation is absent or sparse, usually shrubby, and is characterised by an arid, hot to cool climate.

Dipping: Commonly used for immersing animals in an insecticidal liquid.

Dystocia: Abnormal or difficult labour causing difficulty in delivering the foetus and placenta.

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East Coast Fever: Acute tick-borne disease of cattle caused by protozoan parasite and it is characterised by high fever, lymph node enlargement, dyspnea (respiratory distress), weakness, emaciation and high death rate in susceptible breeds.

Ecological site: Land with a specific potential natural community and specific physical site characteristics, differing from other kinds of land in its ability to produce vegetation and to respond to management. Synonymous with range site.

Ecological status: The present state of vegetation and soil protection of an ecological site in relation to the potential natural community for the site. Vegetation status is the expression of the relative degree to which the kind, proportions, and amounts of plants in a community resemble that of the potential natural community.

Ecosystem: Organisms that together with their physical environment form an interacting system and inhabit an identifiable space.
Ectoparasite: A parasite that lives in the skin or outside of its host e.g. lice.

EDF: European Development Fund.

Endemic: Confined in its indigenous occurrence to a particular region.

Endoparasite: Parasite that lives on the inside of its host e.g. tapeworm.

Environmental assessment (EA): A concise public document for which a federal agency is responsible. An EA serves (1) to briefly provide enough evidence and analysis for determining whether to prepare an environmental impact statement (EIS) or a finding of no significant impact; and to aid an agencies compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act when no EIS is needed; and (3) to facilitate preparation of an EIS when one is needed.

Environmental impact statement (EIS): An analytical document that portrays potential impacts on the human environment of a particular course of action and its possible alternatives. Required by the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), an EIS is prepared for use by decision-makers to weight the environmental consequences of a potential decision.

Enzootic: Occurring endemically among animals, i.e., continuously prevalent among animals in a certain region.

Epidemic: A widespread occurrence of a disease in one area at a particular time.

Epidemiology: The study of the incidence and distribution of diseases and other factors relating to health.

Epizootic: Temporarily prevalent and widespread disease in an animal population.

Etiology: The science or study of the causes of disease, both direct and predisposing, and the mode of their operation.

Ewe: An adult female sheep.

Extensive grazing management: Grazing management that utilises relatively large land areas per animal and a relatively low level of labour, resources, or capital.

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First-last grazing: A method of utilising two or more groups of animals, usually with different nutritional requirements, to graze sequentially on the same land area. If more than two groups of animals are grazed sequentially, this would be described as first, second, and last grazing.

FNEC: Fédération nationale des éleveurs centrafricains (The National Herders' Association, Central African Republic)

Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD): A highly infectious viral disease in cattle, pigs, sheep and goats, characterised by the development of blisters in the mouth and on the feet resulting in lameness. Death is not usual but animals cease gaining weight and milk production drops.
Forage allowance: The relationship between the weight of forage dry matter per unit area and the number of animal units or forage intake units at any point in time; a forage-to-animal relationship. The inverse of grazing pressure. May be expressed as forage mass per animal unit or forage intake unit (forage mass/animal unit at a specific time). This definition can be appropriately altered to be specific to herbage or browse by substituting these terms in place of forage.
Forage crop: A crop of cultivated plants or plant parts, other than separated grain, produced to be grazed or harvested for use as feed for animals.

Forage intake unit: An animal with a rate of forage consumption equal to 8kg dry matter/day. Assuming that one animal unit has a dry matter intake rate of 8 kg/day (NRC, 1984), any animal may be represented as a certain fraction or multiple of the animal-unit, based solely on its rate of forage intake per day. An animal which has a forage intake rate larger or smaller than 8 kg dry matter/day will have an animal-unit-equivalent which is a proportionate fraction or multiple of one animal unit. The use of forage intake unit in a publication should be followed by a description using a standard format. This format should include at least the following information: forage species and cultivars, stage of growth, plant height, and forage mass.

Forage mass: The total dry weight of forage per unit area of land, usually above ground level and at a defined reference level. This definition can be appropriately altered to be specific to herbage or browse by substituting these terms in place of forage.

Forage: All browse and herbaceous growth available and acceptable to grazing animals or that may be harvested for feeding purposes. Forage includes pasture, rangelands, and crop aftermath. Feed includes forage, hay and grains.

Forb: A non-woody, herbaceous broadleaf plant that is not a grass, sedge, or rush and is not grass-like.

Forest grazing: The combined use of forestland or woodland for both wood production and animal production by grazing of the coexisting indigenous forage, or vegetation that is managed like indigenous forage.

Forestland: Land on which the vegetation is dominated by forest or, if trees are lacking, the land bears evidence of former forest and has not been converted to other vegetation.

Fowl Cholera: A contagious bacterial disease of poultry, characterised by sudden high fever and profuse green diarrhoea.

Fowl: General term for domestic cocks, cockerels, hens and pullets.
Frontal grazing: A grazing method that allocates forage within a land area by means of a sliding fence that livestock can advance to gain access to ungrazed forage.

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Geographic Information System (GIS): A computer system that allows information about land to be as maps. Different characteristics, such as vegetation or soil type, are stored as separate "layers." The layers can be combined to display interactions of characteristics.

GIAP: Groupement d'intérêt agro-pastoral (agro-pastoral community group, Central African Republic)

GIP: Groupement d'intérêt pastoral (pastoral community group, Central African Republic)

GM: Global Mechanism

GMU: Grassland Management Unit (China)

Grass: A plant with long, narrow leaves having parallel veins and nondescript flowers. Stems are hollow or pithy in cross-section. Members of the plant family Poaceae.

Grassland: Land on which the vegetation is dominated by grasses.

Grass-like plant: A plant that resembles a grass but has stems that are solid in cross-section, including rushes and sedges.

Grazable forestland: Forestland that produces, at least periodically, sufficient understory vegetation that can be grazed. Forage is indigenous or, if introduced, it is managed as though it were indigenous.

Graze: The consumption of forage in situ by animals. This verb should be used in the active form with the animal as the subject. The verb should not be used in the passive voice so as to imply that a person is the subject or actor; i.e., cattle graze; people do not graze cattle.

Grazing Allotment: An area where one or more livestock operators graze their livestock. An allotment generally consists of federal land but may include parcels of private or state-owned land.

Grazing cell: A grazing arrangement comprised of numerous sub-divisions (paddocks) with a central component for livestock management and movement (cell center).

Grazing cycle: The time elapsed between the beginning of one grazing period and the beginning of the next grazing period in the same paddock where the forage is regularly grazed and rested. One grazing cycle includes one grazing period plus one rest period. Dispersion of livestock grazing within a management unit.

Grazing event: The length of time that an animal grazes without stopping.

Grazing fee: A charge, usually on a monthly (or annually) basis, for grazing a specific kind of livestock.

Grazing land management: The manipulation of the soil-plant-animal complex of the grazing land in pursuit of a desired result. The definition may be applied to specific kinds of grazing land by substituting the appropriate term, such as grassland in place of grazing land.
Grazing land: Any vegetated land that is grazed or that has the potential to be grazed by animals.

Grazing management unit: The grazing land area used to support a group of grazing animals for a grazing season. It may be a single area or it may have a number of subdivisions.

Grazing management: The control of grazing and browsing animals to accomplish a defined objective.

Grazing method: A defined procedure or technique of grazing management designed to achieve a specific objective(s). One or more grazing methods can be utilised within a grazing system.

Grazing period: The length of time that grazing livestock or wildlife occupy a specific land area.

Grazing permit/license/lease: Official written permission to graze a specific number, kind, and class of livestock for a specified time period on a defined rangeland.

Grazing preference: (1) Selection of plants, or plant parts, over others by grazing animals. (2) In the administration of public lands, a basis upon which grazing-use permits and licenses are issued.

Grazing pressure: The relationship between the number of animal units or forage intake units and the weight of forage dry matter per unit area at any point in time; an animal-to forage relationship. May be expressed as animal units or forage intake units to forage mass (animal units/forage mass at a specific time).

Grazing season: The time period during which grazing can normally be practised each year or portion of each year.

Grazing system: A defined, integrated combination of animal, plant, soil, and other environmental components and the grazing method(s) by which the system is managed to achieve specific results or goals.

Grazing: Consumption of native forage from rangelands or pastures by livestock or wildlife.

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Heifer: A bovine female less than three years of age who has not born a calf.

Haemorrhagic Septicaemia: An acute bacterial disease, mainly affecting large ruminants. It is characterised by a sudden onset of fever, profuse salivation, severe depression and death in about 24 hours. This disease is recorded chiefly from Southeast Asian countries and it can be prevented by vaccination.

Hen: A female fowl that has begun to lay.

Herbaceous: Non-woody.

Herbage: The biomass of herbaceous plants, other than separated grain, generally above ground but including edible roots and tubers.

Herbage: Total aboveground biomass of herbaceous plants regardless of grazing preference or availability.

Hog Cholera: Also called Classic Swine Fever. Typically acute, highly contagious and fatal disease of pigs but it can also cause chronic or sub-clinical disease. It is characterised with high fever, anorexia, haemorrhages in different parts of the body and it is often accompanied with digestive, nervous and pulmonary symptoms. Reproductive failure can be a significant feature of infection and may occur without other symptoms. The affected animals eliminate the virus in large quantities in all their excretions and secretions.

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IDA: International Development Association.

Incidence: The frequency of occurrence of a situation or a condition.

Indigenous: An organism that is native to a particular habitat, as distinct from one introduced from outside the area.
Infectious diseases: Diseases capable of transmission from sick animals to disease-free animals.

Intensity: In reference to the Grazing Response Index, the proportion of leaves removed during a grazing period.

Intensive grazing management: Grazing management that attempts to increase production or utilisation per unit area or production per animal through a relative increase in stocking rates, forage utilisation, labour, resources, or capital. Intensive grazing management is not synonymous with rotational grazing.

Introduced species: A species not a part of the original fauna or flora of a given area.

Invader: Plant species that were absent in undisturbed portions of the original vegetation of a specific range site and will invade or increase following disturbance or continued heavy grazing.

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Khot ail: Tent group in Mongolia.

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Lamb: A sheep less than twelve months old.

Legume: A legume is a flowering plant that bears its protein-rich seeds in pods and can fix nitrogen from the soil (due to the symbiotic root bacteria rhizobia). Some legumes include lentils, beans, clover, alfalfa, vetches, kudzu, peas and Leucaena spp.. Members of the plant family Fabaceae.

Lice: Small non-flying biting or sucking ectoparasites.

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MAAR: Ministry of Agriculture and Agrarian Reform (Syria).

Manure: Excreta of animals, dung and urine (commonly with some bedding).

Meadow: A tract of grassland where productivity of indigenous or introduced forage is modified due to characteristics of the landscape position or hydrology.

Mixed grazing: Grazing by two or more species of grazing animals on the same land unit, not necessarily at the same time but within the same grazing season.

Monitoring: The orderly collection, analysis, and interpretation of resource data over time to evaluate progress toward meeting management objectives.

Morbidity: The percentage of a herd, flock etc., that becomes infected by particular disease.

Mortality rate: A measure of the frequency of occurrence of death in a defined population during a specified interval of time.

MTR: Mid-Term Review.

Multiple use: A combination of balanced and diverse resource uses that considers long-term needs for renewable and non-renewable resources, including recreation, rangeland, timber, minerals, watershed, and wildlife, along with scenic, scientific, and cultural values.

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Native species: A species that is a part of the original fauna or flora of a given area.

Newcastle disease: A highly infectious disease of poultry caused by paramyxovirus. Symptoms include reduced yield of often soft and miss-shaped eggs, lack of appetite, troubled breathing, nasal discharges and foul-smelling yellow, watery diarrhoea. High mortality amongst young birds is common.

Non-selective grazing: Utilisation of forage by grazing animals so that all forage species and/or all plants within a species are grazed. Non-selective grazing is generally attempted by using high stocking rates or high stocking densities during short time periods. In practice, non-selective grazing is achieved rarely.

NRM: Natural Resource Management.

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OKMC: Operational Knowledge Management Committee (IFAD)

Overgrazing: Continued heavy grazing that exceeds the recovery capacity of individual plants in the community and creates a deteriorated range.

Overstocking: Placing a number of animals on a given area that exceeds the forage supply during the time they are present.

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Paddock: A grazing area that is a subdivision of a grazing management unit, and is enclosed and separated from other areas by a fence or barrier.

Palatability: The relish with which a particular species or plant part is consumed by an animal.

Parasite: An organism living in or on another and benefiting at the expense of the other. Often, though not always harmful to the host. Animal parasites include internal warms and external lice, mites, ticks etc.

Pasture: A type of grazing management unit enclosed and separated from other areas by fencing or other barriers and devoted to the production of forage for harvest primarily by grazing.

Perennial Plant: A plant that has a life cycle of 3 or more years.

Period of occupation: The length of time that a specific land area is occupied, whether by one animal group or by two or more animal groups in succession.

Period of stay: The length of time that a particular animal group occupies a specific land area. Period of occupation and period of stay differentiate between the total time a specific land area is utilized and the time that a particular group of animals is using said land area.
Peste de Petits Ruminantes: An acute, highly contagious viral disease of goats and sheep characterised by fever, anorexia, necrotic stomatitis, diarrhoea and respiratory distress. It is a rinder-pest-like disease in Africa and Asia and is highly fatal in goats and less so in sheep.

PIU: Project Implementation Unit.

Prairie: Nearly level or rolling grassland, originally treeless, and usually characterised by fertile soil.

Predisposition: Latent susceptibility or tendency toward disease.

Prevalence: This is defined as a number of cases of disease or infection existing at any given time in relation to the unit of population in which they occur.

Pure live seed (PLS): Purity and germination of seed expressed in percent; calculated as PLS = % germination x % purity/100.

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Rabies: A highly fatal viral zoonosis that occurs in all warm-blooded animals. Rabies is a viral disease and it is transmitted by the bites of infected animals.

Ram: A male sheep that has not been castrated.

Range condition: The "health" of range as compared to some standard at a point in time. The standard can be defined in ecological terms or in terms of a particular use. In the ecological determination, the degree of departure from climax determines condition.

Range condition: The current productivity of a rangeland relative to what it could naturally produce.

Range improvement: Any practice designed to improve range condition or allow more efficient use.

Range management: A distinct discipline founded on ecological principles with the objective of sustainable use of rangelands and related resources for various purposes.

Range or Rangeland: (1) A kind of land on which the native vegetation, climax or natural potential consists predominately of grasses, grass-like plants, forbs, or shrubs. Rangeland includes lands re-vegetated naturally or artificially to provide a plant cover that is managed like native vegetation. Rangelands may consist of natural grasslands, savannahs, shrub lands, most deserts, tundra, alpine communities, coastal marshes, and wet meadows. (2) Land supporting indigenous vegetation that is grazed or that has the potential to be grazed, and is managed as a natural ecosystem. Range includes grazable forestland and rangeland.

Range site: Subdivisions of rangeland for management purposes having similar soils, climate and climax plant communities. Two or more identical range sites that are spatially separated should respond in a similar manner to the same kind of management.

Range trend: The change in range condition over time.

Ration grazing: Confining animals to an area of grazing land to provide the daily allowance of forage per animal.

RDF: Revolving Drug Fund

Residue: Forage remaining on the land as a consequence of harvest.

Rest: To leave an area of grazing land ungrazed or not harvested for a specific time, such as a year, a growing season, or a specified period required within a particular management practice.

Rest period: The length of time that a specific land area is allowed to rest.

Rest rotation: A grazing-management scheme in which rest periods, usually for a full growing season, for individual grazing units are incorporated into a grazing rotation.

RF: Revolving Fund.

Rinderpest: An acute, highly contagious viral disease of ruminants and swine characterised by high fever, necrotic stomatitis, diarrhoea and high mortality.

Riparian zone: The banks and adjacent areas of water bodies, water courses, seeps and springs whose waters provide soil moisture sufficiently in excess of that otherwise available locally so as to provide a more moist habitat than that of contiguous flood plains and uplands.

RIS: Rangelands Information System (previous name of RKMIS).

RKMIS: Rangelands Knowledge Management Information System.

RKMS: Rangelands Knowledge Management System (previous name of RKMIS).

Rotational stocking/grazing: A grazing method that utilises recurring periods of grazing and rest among two or more paddocks in a grazing management unit throughout the period when grazing is allowed. The lengths of the grazing and of the rest periods should be defined.

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Savannah: Grassland with scattered trees or shrubs; often a transitional type between true grassland and forestland, and accompanied by a climate with alternating wet and dry seasons.

Season of use: The time during which livestock grazing is permitted on a given range area, as specified in the grazing permit.
Seasonal grazing: Grazing restricted to one or more specific seasons of the year.

Sequence grazing: The grazing of two or more land units in succession that differ in forage species composition. Sequence grazing takes advantage of differences among forage species and species combinations, grown in separate areas for management purposes, to extend grazing seasons enhance forage quality and/or quantity, or achieve some other management objective.

Short-duration grazing: Grazing management whereby short periods (days) of grazing and associated non-grazing are applied to range or pasture units. The lengths of grazing and non-grazing periods are based on the rate of plant growth.

Shrub: Any species of woody plant of less than tree height (16 feet) and usually having multiple basal stems.
Shrubland: Land on which the vegetation is dominated by shrubs.

SPA: The Special Programme for Africa (full name: The Special Programme for Sub-Saharan African Countries Affected by Drought and Desertification).

Species composition: The proportions of various plant species in relation to the total on a given area.

Steppe: Semi-arid grassland characterised by short grasses occurring in scattered bunches with other herbaceous vegetation and occasional woody species.

Stocking rate: The number of specific kinds and classes of animals grazing or using a unit of land for specified time. May be expressed as animal units or forage intake units per unit of land area (animal units over a described time period/area of land).

Strip grazing: Confining animals to an area of grazing land to be grazed in a relatively short period of time, where the paddock size is varied to allow access to a specific land. Strip grazing may or may not be a form of rotational stocking, depending on whether or not specific paddocks are utilised for recurring periods of grazing and rest.

SU: Stock Unit.

Substitution ratio: Number of animals or animal-units of one kind or class that can be substituted for another kind or class to meet a specified management objective.

Sum: District in Mongolia.

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Tethering: To tie an animal with a rope or chain to allow grazing but prevent straying.

TG: Thematic Group.

TLU: Tropical Livestock Unit.

Trypanosomiasis: Group of diseases caused by parasites that live in the blood and body fluids of their hosts. Flies, especially tsetse flies, transmit the disease. African trypanosomiasis occurs in cattle, small ruminants and pigs. Symptoms vary from subclinical infection to a highly fatal disease depending on the parasite species, the host and its level of resistance.

Tuberculosis: A contagious bacterial disease characterised by the progressive development of tubercles in any of the organs in most species. Bovine tuberculosis damages the animal's lungs and eventually leads to death. Tuberculosis is a zoonoses.

Tundra: Land areas in arctic and alpine regions devoid of large trees, varying from bare ground to various types of vegetation consisting of grasses, sedges, forbs, dwarf shrubs and trees, mosses, and lichens.

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UNCCD: United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification.

Ungrazed: The status of grazing land that is not grazed by animals. Also, the status of plants or plant parts that are not grazed by animals.

UNSO: Office to Combat Desertification and Drought (formerly United Nations Sudano-Sahelian Office, UNDP/UNSO).

Urea: A white, crystalline, substance found in urine, blood, and lymph, which is the final product of protein metabolism in the body. Synthetic urea can be used by ruminal bacteria as a nitrogen source for protein synthesis.

USAID: United States Agency for International Development.

Use: The proportion of current years forage production that is consumed or destroyed by grazing animals.

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Variable stocking: The practice of allowing a variable number of animals on a fixed area of land during the time when grazing is allowed.

Vector: An organism, such as a mosquito or a tick, which transmits micro-organisms that cause diseases.

Vegetation: Plant life in general (Webster's, 1988).

VV: Village Veterinarians.

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Weed. (1) A plant growing where unwanted. (2) A plant having a negative value within a given management system.

Wetlands: Permanently wet or intermittently water-covered areas, such as swamps, marshes, bogs, potholes, swales, and glades.

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Year-Long grazing: Continuous grazing for a calendar year.

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ZAGROP: Zone d'action agro-pastoral (pastoralist settlement area, Central African Republic).

Zoonoses: Any of various diseases that can be transmitted to humans from animals e.g. salmonellosis, Q-fever, leptospirosis and rabies.