ACCB: Association Centrafricaine des Commerçants en Bétail (The Central African Association of Livestock Traders, Central African Republic).
The Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research.
Swine Fever: A highly contagious viral disease of pigs. It is characterised
by fever, refusal to eat, foul-smelling diarrhoea, eye discharge, distressed
breathing and general weakness. The disease may be acute, particularly
in young pigs, and death may occur in few days. The disease may also
take a chronic form, mainly in older pigs, which remain ill for a long
period and lose condition. Ticks transmit the disease.
Agroforestry: Land use system in which woody perennials are grown for wood production with agricultural crops, with or without animal production.
Land use system in which woody perennials are grown with agricultural
crops, forage crops, and livestock production.
Province in Mongolia.
Alternate stocking: The repeated grazing and resting of forage using two paddocks in succession.
ANBC: Association Nationale des Bouchers Centrafricains
(The National Association of Central African Butchers, Central African
ANDE: Agence nationale pour le Développement
de l'Élevage (The Livestock Development Agency, Central African
Animal Unit (AU): Considered to be one mature cow
(1000 lb, 455kg) either dry or with a calf up to 6 months of age, with
an average daily forage consumption of 15 kg of dry matter. Livestock
which consume more or less forage than the standard animal unit, because
of kind, class, or size are rated on an animal unit equivalent (e.g. 1300
lb cow = 1.3 AU; 1 sheep = 0.1 AU)
Animal unit day: The amount of dry forage consumed
by one animal unit per 24-hour period. Animal unit day is used to express
the quantity of forage intake for a period of time and may be extrapolated
to other time periods, such as week, month, or year.
Annual Plant: A plant that completes its life cycle
and dies in 1 year or less.
Anthelmintic: A drug which kills or expels intestinal
Anthrax: An acute, infectious, febrile disease of
livestock and man, which often leads to the death of an infected individual.
Cattle, sheep, goats etc. are commonly affected by anthrax. Bacteria called
Bacillus anthracis causes this disease.
Aquaculture: The raising of plants or animals, as
fish or shellfish, in or under a sea, a lake, a river, or another body
Arable: Suitable for cultivation; tillable.
Arid: Applied to a climate or region where rainfall
is barely sufficient to support vegetation; deficient in rainfall.
Available forage: That portion of the forage, expressed
as weight of forage per unit land area, that is accessible for consumption
by a specified kind, class, sex, size, age, and physiological status of
Bag: Sub-district in Mongolia
Blackleg: An acute, infectious disease of cattle,
which is characterised by swelling beneath the skin, due to gas formation
in the tissues. It is caused by the bacterium Clostridium chauvei. The
infection spreads through food, water and wounds. Penicillin can be used
to treat the disease. Vaccination is the most practicable and effective
means of protecting individual animal.
Bod: Mongolian livestock unit. 1 bod is equivalent
to one cattle or yak, or seven sheep.
Browse: Leaf and twig growth of shrubs, woody vines,
trees, cacti, and other non-herbaceous vegetation available for animal
consumption.(v) To browse. The consumption of browse in situ by animals.
Brucellosis: A bacterial disease of the reproductive
system that causes abortions in mainly cattle, sheep and pigs, although
all mammals are susceptible. It is spread via aborted calves, discharges
and milk that contaminate pasture, food and water.
BSF: Belgian Survival Fund.
CAHW: Community Animal Health Worker.
CAR: Central African Republic.
Carrying capacity: The average number of livestock
and wildlife that may be sustained on a management unit compatibly with
management objectives. It is a function of site characteristics, and management
goals and intensity.
CBPP: Contagious Bovine Pleuro-Pneumonia.
Class of livestock: Description of age or sex group
for a particular kind of livestock, such as cow, bull, calf, yearling,
ewe, ram or lamb.
CLW: Community Livestock Worker.
Complementary forage: Short-term forage planted to
enhance the management and productivity of a ranch.
Congenital: Deformities, diseases etc., that are
either present at birth or which being transmitted direct from the parents,
show themselves some time after birth.
Contagious Bovine Pleuro-pneumonia (CBPP): Acute
pneumonia in cattle with respiratory distress and fever. Morbidity up
to 100% and mortality rate up to 50%.
Contamination: Entry of undesirable micro-organisms
to some material or object.
Continuous grazing: The grazing of a specific unit
throughout a year, growing season, or that part of a year when grazing
Continuous stocking: A method of grazing livestock
on a specific unit of land where animals have unrestricted and uninterrupted
access throughout the time period when grazing is allowed. The length
of the grazing period should be defined.
Controlled grazing: Controlled grazing has sometimes
been used erroneously to describe increased grazing management. The control
imposed is a matter of level or degree and is better described in terms
of grazing management and grazing methods.
Cover: (1) The plant or plant parts, living or dead,
on the ground surface. (2) The proportional area of ground covered by
plants on a stated area.
Cow-calf operation: A livestock operation in which
a base breeding herd of mother cows and bulls is maintained. The cows
produce a calf crop each year, and the operation keeps some heifer calves
from each calf crop for breeding herd replacements. The rest of the calf
crop is sold between the ages of 6 and 12 months along with old or non-productive
cows and bulls.
Creep grazing: The practice of allowing juvenile
animals to graze areas that their dams cannot access at the same time.
Cropland: Land devoted to the production of cultivated
crops. May be used to produce forage crops.
Deferment: Delay of livestock grazing on an area
for an adequate period of time to provide for plant reproduction, establishment
of new plants, or restoration of vigour.
Desert: Land on which the vegetation is absent or
sparse, usually shrubby, and is characterised by an arid, hot to cool
Dipping: Commonly used for immersing animals in an
Dystocia: Abnormal or difficult labour causing difficulty
in delivering the foetus and placenta.
East Coast Fever: Acute tick-borne disease of cattle
caused by protozoan parasite and it is characterised by high fever, lymph
node enlargement, dyspnea (respiratory distress), weakness, emaciation
and high death rate in susceptible breeds.
Ecological site: Land with a specific potential natural
community and specific physical site characteristics, differing from other
kinds of land in its ability to produce vegetation and to respond to management.
Synonymous with range site.
Ecological status: The present state of vegetation
and soil protection of an ecological site in relation to the potential
natural community for the site. Vegetation status is the expression of
the relative degree to which the kind, proportions, and amounts of plants
in a community resemble that of the potential natural community.
Ecosystem: Organisms that together with their physical
environment form an interacting system and inhabit an identifiable space.
EDF: European Development Fund.
Endemic: Confined in its indigenous occurrence to
a particular region.
Endoparasite: Parasite that lives on the inside of
its host e.g. tapeworm.
Environmental assessment (EA): A concise public document
for which a federal agency is responsible. An EA serves (1) to briefly
provide enough evidence and analysis for determining whether to prepare
an environmental impact statement (EIS) or a finding of no significant
impact; and to aid an agencies compliance with the National Environmental
Policy Act when no EIS is needed; and (3) to facilitate preparation of
an EIS when one is needed.
Environmental impact statement (EIS): An analytical
document that portrays potential impacts on the human environment of a
particular course of action and its possible alternatives. Required by
the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), an EIS is prepared for use
by decision-makers to weight the environmental consequences of a potential
Enzootic: Occurring endemically among animals, i.e.,
continuously prevalent among animals in a certain region.
Epidemic: A widespread occurrence of a disease in
one area at a particular time.
Epidemiology: The study of the incidence and distribution
of diseases and other factors relating to health.
Epizootic: Temporarily prevalent and widespread disease
in an animal population.
Etiology: The science or study of the causes of disease,
both direct and predisposing, and the mode of their operation.
Ewe: An adult female sheep.
Extensive grazing management: Grazing management
that utilises relatively large land areas per animal and a relatively
low level of labour, resources, or capital.
First-last grazing: A method of utilising two or
more groups of animals, usually with different nutritional requirements,
to graze sequentially on the same land area. If more than two groups of
animals are grazed sequentially, this would be described as first, second,
and last grazing.
FNEC: Fédération nationale des éleveurs
centrafricains (The National Herders' Association, Central African Republic)
Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD): A highly infectious
viral disease in cattle, pigs, sheep and goats, characterised by the development
of blisters in the mouth and on the feet resulting in lameness. Death
is not usual but animals cease gaining weight and milk production drops.
Forage intake unit: An animal with a rate of forage
consumption equal to 8kg dry matter/day. Assuming that one animal unit
has a dry matter intake rate of 8 kg/day (NRC, 1984), any animal may be
represented as a certain fraction or multiple of the animal-unit, based
solely on its rate of forage intake per day. An animal which has a forage
intake rate larger or smaller than 8 kg dry matter/day will have an animal-unit-equivalent
which is a proportionate fraction or multiple of one animal unit. The
use of forage intake unit in a publication should be followed by a description
using a standard format. This format should include at least the following
information: forage species and cultivars, stage of growth, plant height,
and forage mass.
Forage mass: The total dry weight of forage per unit
area of land, usually above ground level and at a defined reference level.
This definition can be appropriately altered to be specific to herbage
or browse by substituting these terms in place of forage.
Forage: All browse and herbaceous growth available
and acceptable to grazing animals or that may be harvested for feeding
purposes. Forage includes pasture, rangelands, and crop aftermath. Feed
includes forage, hay and grains.
Forb: A non-woody, herbaceous broadleaf plant that
is not a grass, sedge, or rush and is not grass-like.
Forest grazing: The combined use of forestland or
woodland for both wood production and animal production by grazing of
the coexisting indigenous forage, or vegetation that is managed like indigenous
Forestland: Land on which the vegetation is dominated
by forest or, if trees are lacking, the land bears evidence of former
forest and has not been converted to other vegetation.
Fowl Cholera: A contagious bacterial disease of poultry,
characterised by sudden high fever and profuse green diarrhoea.
Fowl: General term for domestic cocks, cockerels,
hens and pullets.
Geographic Information System (GIS): A computer system
that allows information about land to be as maps. Different characteristics,
such as vegetation or soil type, are stored as separate "layers."
The layers can be combined to display interactions of characteristics.
GIAP: Groupement d'intérêt agro-pastoral
(agro-pastoral community group, Central African Republic)
GIP: Groupement d'intérêt pastoral (pastoral
community group, Central African Republic)
GM: Global Mechanism
GMU: Grassland Management Unit (China)
Grass: A plant with long, narrow leaves having parallel
veins and nondescript flowers. Stems are hollow or pithy in cross-section.
Members of the plant family Poaceae.
Grassland: Land on which the vegetation is dominated
Grass-like plant: A plant that resembles a grass
but has stems that are solid in cross-section, including rushes and sedges.
Grazable forestland: Forestland that produces, at
least periodically, sufficient understory vegetation that can be grazed.
Forage is indigenous or, if introduced, it is managed as though it were
Graze: The consumption of forage in situ by animals.
This verb should be used in the active form with the animal as the subject.
The verb should not be used in the passive voice so as to imply that a
person is the subject or actor; i.e., cattle graze; people do not graze
Grazing Allotment: An area where one or more livestock
operators graze their livestock. An allotment generally consists of federal
land but may include parcels of private or state-owned land.
Grazing cell: A grazing arrangement comprised of
numerous sub-divisions (paddocks) with a central component for livestock
management and movement (cell center).
Grazing cycle: The time elapsed between the beginning
of one grazing period and the beginning of the next grazing period in
the same paddock where the forage is regularly grazed and rested. One
grazing cycle includes one grazing period plus one rest period. Dispersion
of livestock grazing within a management unit.
Grazing event: The length of time that an animal
grazes without stopping.
Grazing fee: A charge, usually on a monthly (or annually)
basis, for grazing a specific kind of livestock.
Grazing land management: The manipulation of the
soil-plant-animal complex of the grazing land in pursuit of a desired
result. The definition may be applied to specific kinds of grazing land
by substituting the appropriate term, such as grassland in place of grazing
Grazing management unit: The grazing land area used
to support a group of grazing animals for a grazing season. It may be
a single area or it may have a number of subdivisions.
Grazing management: The control of grazing and browsing
animals to accomplish a defined objective.
Grazing method: A defined procedure or technique
of grazing management designed to achieve a specific objective(s). One
or more grazing methods can be utilised within a grazing system.
Grazing period: The length of time that grazing livestock
or wildlife occupy a specific land area.
Grazing permit/license/lease: Official written permission
to graze a specific number, kind, and class of livestock for a specified
time period on a defined rangeland.
Grazing preference: (1) Selection of plants, or plant
parts, over others by grazing animals. (2) In the administration of public
lands, a basis upon which grazing-use permits and licenses are issued.
Grazing pressure: The relationship between the number
of animal units or forage intake units and the weight of forage dry matter
per unit area at any point in time; an animal-to forage relationship.
May be expressed as animal units or forage intake units to forage mass
(animal units/forage mass at a specific time).
Grazing season: The time period during which grazing
can normally be practised each year or portion of each year.
Grazing system: A defined, integrated combination
of animal, plant, soil, and other environmental components and the grazing
method(s) by which the system is managed to achieve specific results or
Grazing: Consumption of native forage from rangelands
or pastures by livestock or wildlife.
Heifer: A bovine female less than three years of
age who has not born a calf.
Haemorrhagic Septicaemia: An acute bacterial disease,
mainly affecting large ruminants. It is characterised by a sudden onset
of fever, profuse salivation, severe depression and death in about 24
hours. This disease is recorded chiefly from Southeast Asian countries
and it can be prevented by vaccination.
Hen: A female fowl that has begun to lay.
Herbage: The biomass of herbaceous plants, other
than separated grain, generally above ground but including edible roots
Herbage: Total aboveground biomass of herbaceous
plants regardless of grazing preference or availability.
Hog Cholera: Also called Classic Swine Fever. Typically
acute, highly contagious and fatal disease of pigs but it can also cause
chronic or sub-clinical disease. It is characterised with high fever,
anorexia, haemorrhages in different parts of the body and it is often
accompanied with digestive, nervous and pulmonary symptoms. Reproductive
failure can be a significant feature of infection and may occur without
other symptoms. The affected animals eliminate the virus in large quantities
in all their excretions and secretions.
IDA: International Development Association.
Incidence: The frequency of occurrence of a situation
or a condition.
Indigenous: An organism that is native to a particular
habitat, as distinct from one introduced from outside the area.
Intensity: In reference to the Grazing Response Index,
the proportion of leaves removed during a grazing period.
Intensive grazing management: Grazing management
that attempts to increase production or utilisation per unit area or production
per animal through a relative increase in stocking rates, forage utilisation,
labour, resources, or capital. Intensive grazing management is not synonymous
with rotational grazing.
Introduced species: A species not a part of the original
fauna or flora of a given area.
Invader: Plant species that were absent in undisturbed
portions of the original vegetation of a specific range site and will
invade or increase following disturbance or continued heavy grazing.
Khot ail: Tent group in Mongolia.
Lamb: A sheep less than twelve months old.
Legume: A legume is a flowering plant that bears
its protein-rich seeds in pods and can fix nitrogen from the soil (due
to the symbiotic root bacteria rhizobia). Some legumes include lentils,
beans, clover, alfalfa, vetches, kudzu, peas and Leucaena spp.. Members
of the plant family Fabaceae.
Lice: Small non-flying biting or sucking ectoparasites.
MAAR: Ministry of Agriculture and Agrarian Reform
Manure: Excreta of animals, dung and urine (commonly
with some bedding).
Meadow: A tract of grassland where productivity of
indigenous or introduced forage is modified due to characteristics of
the landscape position or hydrology.
Mixed grazing: Grazing by two or more species of
grazing animals on the same land unit, not necessarily at the same time
but within the same grazing season.
Monitoring: The orderly collection, analysis, and
interpretation of resource data over time to evaluate progress toward
meeting management objectives.
Morbidity: The percentage of a herd, flock etc.,
that becomes infected by particular disease.
Mortality rate: A measure of the frequency of occurrence
of death in a defined population during a specified interval of time.
MTR: Mid-Term Review.
Multiple use: A combination of balanced and diverse
resource uses that considers long-term needs for renewable and non-renewable
resources, including recreation, rangeland, timber, minerals, watershed,
and wildlife, along with scenic, scientific, and cultural values.
Native species: A species that is a part of the original
fauna or flora of a given area.
Newcastle disease: A highly infectious disease of
poultry caused by paramyxovirus. Symptoms include reduced yield of often
soft and miss-shaped eggs, lack of appetite, troubled breathing, nasal
discharges and foul-smelling yellow, watery diarrhoea. High mortality
amongst young birds is common.
Non-selective grazing: Utilisation of forage by grazing
animals so that all forage species and/or all plants within a species
are grazed. Non-selective grazing is generally attempted by using high
stocking rates or high stocking densities during short time periods. In
practice, non-selective grazing is achieved rarely.
NRM: Natural Resource Management.
OKMC: Operational Knowledge Management Committee
Overgrazing: Continued heavy grazing that exceeds
the recovery capacity of individual plants in the community and creates
a deteriorated range.
Overstocking: Placing a number of animals on a given
area that exceeds the forage supply during the time they are present.
Paddock: A grazing area that is a subdivision of
a grazing management unit, and is enclosed and separated from other areas
by a fence or barrier.
Palatability: The relish with which a particular
species or plant part is consumed by an animal.
Parasite: An organism living in or on another and
benefiting at the expense of the other. Often, though not always harmful
to the host. Animal parasites include internal warms and external lice,
mites, ticks etc.
Pasture: A type of grazing management unit enclosed
and separated from other areas by fencing or other barriers and devoted
to the production of forage for harvest primarily by grazing.
Perennial Plant: A plant that has a life cycle of
3 or more years.
Period of occupation: The length of time that a specific
land area is occupied, whether by one animal group or by two or more animal
groups in succession.
Period of stay: The length of time that a particular
animal group occupies a specific land area. Period of occupation and period
of stay differentiate between the total time a specific land area is utilized
and the time that a particular group of animals is using said land area.
PIU: Project Implementation Unit.
Prairie: Nearly level or rolling grassland, originally
treeless, and usually characterised by fertile soil.
Predisposition: Latent susceptibility or tendency
Prevalence: This is defined as a number of cases
of disease or infection existing at any given time in relation to the
unit of population in which they occur.
Pure live seed (PLS): Purity and germination of seed
expressed in percent; calculated as PLS = % germination x % purity/100.
Rabies: A highly fatal viral zoonosis that occurs
in all warm-blooded animals. Rabies is a viral disease and it is transmitted
by the bites of infected animals.
Ram: A male sheep that has not been castrated.
Range condition: The "health" of range
as compared to some standard at a point in time. The standard can be defined
in ecological terms or in terms of a particular use. In the ecological
determination, the degree of departure from climax determines condition.
Range condition: The current productivity of a rangeland
relative to what it could naturally produce.
Range improvement: Any practice designed to improve
range condition or allow more efficient use.
Range management: A distinct discipline founded on
ecological principles with the objective of sustainable use of rangelands
and related resources for various purposes.
Range or Rangeland: (1) A kind of land on which the
native vegetation, climax or natural potential consists predominately
of grasses, grass-like plants, forbs, or shrubs. Rangeland includes lands
re-vegetated naturally or artificially to provide a plant cover that is
managed like native vegetation. Rangelands may consist of natural grasslands,
savannahs, shrub lands, most deserts, tundra, alpine communities, coastal
marshes, and wet meadows. (2) Land supporting indigenous vegetation that
is grazed or that has the potential to be grazed, and is managed as a
natural ecosystem. Range includes grazable forestland and rangeland.
Range site: Subdivisions of rangeland for management
purposes having similar soils, climate and climax plant communities. Two
or more identical range sites that are spatially separated should respond
in a similar manner to the same kind of management.
Range trend: The change in range condition over time.
Ration grazing: Confining animals to an area of grazing
land to provide the daily allowance of forage per animal.
RDF: Revolving Drug Fund
Residue: Forage remaining on the land as a consequence
Rest: To leave an area of grazing land ungrazed or
not harvested for a specific time, such as a year, a growing season, or
a specified period required within a particular management practice.
Rest period: The length of time that a specific land
area is allowed to rest.
Rest rotation: A grazing-management scheme in which
rest periods, usually for a full growing season, for individual grazing
units are incorporated into a grazing rotation.
RF: Revolving Fund.
Rinderpest: An acute, highly contagious viral disease
of ruminants and swine characterised by high fever, necrotic stomatitis,
diarrhoea and high mortality.
Riparian zone: The banks and adjacent areas of water
bodies, water courses, seeps and springs whose waters provide soil moisture
sufficiently in excess of that otherwise available locally so as to provide
a more moist habitat than that of contiguous flood plains and uplands.
RIS: Rangelands Information System (previous name
RKMIS: Rangelands Knowledge Management Information
RKMS: Rangelands Knowledge Management System (previous
name of RKMIS).
Rotational stocking/grazing: A grazing method that
utilises recurring periods of grazing and rest among two or more paddocks
in a grazing management unit throughout the period when grazing is allowed.
The lengths of the grazing and of the rest periods should be defined.
Savannah: Grassland with scattered trees or shrubs;
often a transitional type between true grassland and forestland, and accompanied
by a climate with alternating wet and dry seasons.
Season of use: The time during which livestock grazing
is permitted on a given range area, as specified in the grazing permit.
Sequence grazing: The grazing of two or more land
units in succession that differ in forage species composition. Sequence
grazing takes advantage of differences among forage species and species
combinations, grown in separate areas for management purposes, to extend
grazing seasons enhance forage quality and/or quantity, or achieve some
other management objective.
Short-duration grazing: Grazing management whereby
short periods (days) of grazing and associated non-grazing are applied
to range or pasture units. The lengths of grazing and non-grazing periods
are based on the rate of plant growth.
Shrub: Any species of woody plant of less than tree
height (16 feet) and usually having multiple basal stems.
SPA: The Special Programme for Africa (full name:
The Special Programme for Sub-Saharan African Countries Affected by Drought
Species composition: The proportions of various plant
species in relation to the total on a given area.
Steppe: Semi-arid grassland characterised by short
grasses occurring in scattered bunches with other herbaceous vegetation
and occasional woody species.
Stocking rate: The number of specific kinds and classes
of animals grazing or using a unit of land for specified time. May be
expressed as animal units or forage intake units per unit of land area
(animal units over a described time period/area of land).
Strip grazing: Confining animals to an area of grazing
land to be grazed in a relatively short period of time, where the paddock
size is varied to allow access to a specific land. Strip grazing may or
may not be a form of rotational stocking, depending on whether or not
specific paddocks are utilised for recurring periods of grazing and rest.
SU: Stock Unit.
Substitution ratio: Number of animals or animal-units
of one kind or class that can be substituted for another kind or class
to meet a specified management objective.
Sum: District in Mongolia.
Tethering: To tie an animal with a rope or chain
to allow grazing but prevent straying.
TG: Thematic Group.
TLU: Tropical Livestock Unit.
Trypanosomiasis: Group of diseases caused by parasites
that live in the blood and body fluids of their hosts. Flies, especially
tsetse flies, transmit the disease. African trypanosomiasis occurs in
cattle, small ruminants and pigs. Symptoms vary from subclinical infection
to a highly fatal disease depending on the parasite species, the host
and its level of resistance.
Tuberculosis: A contagious bacterial disease characterised
by the progressive development of tubercles in any of the organs in most
species. Bovine tuberculosis damages the animal's lungs and eventually
leads to death. Tuberculosis is a zoonoses.
Tundra: Land areas in arctic and alpine regions devoid
of large trees, varying from bare ground to various types of vegetation
consisting of grasses, sedges, forbs, dwarf shrubs and trees, mosses,
UNCCD: United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification.
Ungrazed: The status of grazing land that is not
grazed by animals. Also, the status of plants or plant parts that are
not grazed by animals.
UNSO: Office to Combat Desertification and Drought
(formerly United Nations Sudano-Sahelian Office, UNDP/UNSO).
Urea: A white, crystalline, substance found in urine,
blood, and lymph, which is the final product of protein metabolism in
the body. Synthetic urea can be used by ruminal bacteria as a nitrogen
source for protein synthesis.
USAID: United States Agency for International Development.
Use: The proportion of current years forage production
that is consumed or destroyed by grazing animals.
Variable stocking: The practice of allowing a variable
number of animals on a fixed area of land during the time when grazing
Vector: An organism, such as a mosquito or a tick,
which transmits micro-organisms that cause diseases.
Vegetation: Plant life in general (Webster's, 1988).
VV: Village Veterinarians.
Weed. (1) A plant growing where unwanted. (2) A plant
having a negative value within a given management system.
Wetlands: Permanently wet or intermittently water-covered
areas, such as swamps, marshes, bogs, potholes, swales, and glades.
Year-Long grazing: Continuous grazing for a calendar
ZAGROP: Zone d'action agro-pastoral (pastoralist
settlement area, Central African Republic).
Zoonoses: Any of various diseases that can be transmitted
to humans from animals e.g. salmonellosis, Q-fever, leptospirosis and