Tier I

Providing Trends related to Poverty, Agricultural Development and Development Finance

The COVID-19 pandemic negatively impacted previously improving trends in poverty reduction.

The global poverty rate increased to 9.2% in 2020, compared to pre-pandemic projections of 7.7%. The pace of poverty reduction has slowed since 2019, when the figure came in at 3%. Previously, the global poverty rate had decreased from 15.7% in 2010 to 10% in 2015.

Also hunger and food insecurity deepened worldwide.

9.8% of the population was affected by hunger, i.e. an estimated 828 million people in 2021. The number of undernourished people has increased by about 150 million since the COVID-19 outbreak: 103 million people between 2019 and 2020 alone, and about 46 million more in 2021. Additionally, in 2021, food insecurity affected 33% of global population.

Food insecurity disproportionately affects women - 31.9% of women worldwide were moderately or severely food insecure in 2021 vis-à-vis 27% of men. The gap is notable at 4 percentage points in 2021, compared with 3 percentage points in 2020. If those trends persist, 8% of the world population are projected to face hunger in 2030. The same as in 2015, the year the 2030 Agenda was launched.

IFAD’s role is crucial in tackling these challenges.

The latest figure from 2018 shows that the total flows to the agriculture sector amounted to only US$12.8 billion and the Agriculture Orientation Index (AOI), which shows the government orientation towards expenditure on agriculture, was merely 0.28. An AOI less than 1 reflects a lower commitment to agriculture.


estimated global poverty rate in 2019 (pre-pandemic)


estimated global poverty rate in 2020 (post-pandemic)

Source: United Nations Statistics Division (UNSD)

Ending Hunger


people affected by hunger in 2021


percentage of the population affected by hunger


estimated world population facing hunger in 2030


Gender Gap in food security: 2021 31.9% of women vis-à-vis 27.6% of men

Source: 2022 SOFI Report

Reporting on RMF indicators


Results (year)

Sustainable Development Goal

Sustainable Development Goal 1: No poverty

Proportion of population below the international poverty line of US $1.90 a day

9.2 (2020)


Sustainable Development Goal 2: Zero hunger

Prevalence of food insecurity

33 (2020)


Prevalence of stunting among children under 5 years of age

22 (2020)


Prevalence of malnutrition

6.7%(wasted); 5.7% (overweight) (2020)


Average income of small-scale food producers



Total official flows to the agriculture sector (billions of United States dollars)

12.8 (2018)


Government expenditure on agriculture (index)

0.28 (2020)


Source: United Nations Statistics Division (UNSD)

IFAD is the only multilateral development institution that focuses exclusively on transforming rural economies and food systems. IFAD puts poor rural women and men at the centre of its activities and involves them as participants in project design and implementation.

Browse the RIDE website to learn more about IFAD’s results in 2021.

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