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Research Series 85: Financing climate adaptation and resilient agricultural livelihoods

June 2022
Moving to a process that contributes to improving rather than endangering livelihoods is the challenge that climate change adaptation and resilience-building efforts currently face.

Research Series 84: Farmed animal production in tropical circular food systems

June 2022
In this review, the role of farmed animals in circular food systems in the tropics is presented in four case studies.

Research Series 83: The future of farming: who will produce our food?

June 2022
In this report, we highlight past trends and explore possible future trajectories of smallholder farming to predict who the farmers of the future are.

Research Series 82: Contributions of information and communication technologies to food systems transformation

June 2022
Using a food systems approach, this paper reviews existing evidence and discusses the conditions, rural population segments, and timelines needed to achieve desired outcomes.

Research Series 81: Food and water systems in semi-arid regions – case study: Egypt

June 2022
This paper explores the role of water in Egypt’s food system and the dilemma the country faces: raise food self-sufficiency by allocating freshwater resources from the Nile to food production, or rely on food imports from water-abundant regions worldwide.

Research Series 80: How can different types of smallholder commodity farmers be supported to achieve a living income?

June 2022
The paper finds that short- to medium-term interventions are most effective for improving the livelihoods of poor farmers, including food security and health, off-farm employment, and social assistance.

Research Series 79: The position of export crops banana and cocoa in food systems analysis with special reference to the role of certification schemes

June 2022
In this paper, the certification requirements and schemes of two export commodities—banana and cocoa—are discussed using food system analysis.

Research Series 78: The Small and Medium Enterprises’ quiet revolution in the hidden middle of food systems in developing regions

May 2022
This paper explores the rise of SMEs in transforming food systems—from traditional, to transitional, to modern.

Research Series 77: The role of trade and policies in improving food security

May 2022
Developing competitive and inclusive food value chains requires domestic macroeconomic policies to improve the agricultural sector’s business environment and create outside opportunities, and sector-specific targeted measures to promote smallholder participation in competitive value chains by reducing market access costs.

Research Series Issue 76: Upscaling of traditional fermented foods to build value chains and to promote women entrepreneurship

May 2022
This paper explores how traditional processing of fermented foods can be scaled up while enhancing functional food properties and strengthening local value chains.

Research Series Issue 75: Reverse thinking: taking a healthy diet perspective towards food systems transformations

May 2022
This paper argues that food systems transformation should incorporate a dietary perspective that is guided by information on diets, dietary trends, consumer motives, and the food environment characteristics.

Research Series 74: Women’s empowerment, food systems, and nutrition

May 2022
This background paper examines the linkages and interactions between women’s empowerment, food systems, and nutrition.

Research Series 73: Food systems and rural wellbeing: challenges and opportunities

May 2022
This paper provides a framework for assessing the dynamics of rural wellbeing and food systems change.

Research Series 72: Climate change and food system activities - a review of emission trends, climate impacts and the effects of dietary change

May 2022
This article reviews how food system activities contribute to climate change and how dietary changes affect food systems. It shows that while emissions from food production are increasing in most regions, emissions from land use change are decreasing.

Research Series 71: Urbanizing food systems: exploring opportunities for rural transformation

May 2022
This paper shows that while anticipated increases in food demand by 2050 can largely be met regionally, potential yield increases or diversification will not contribute automatically to inclusive rural transformation. Instead, urbanization may potentially increase rural inequality and poverty.  

Research Series 70: Do not transform food systems on the backs of the rural poor

May 2022
Although the importance of inclusion in food system transformation is gaining traction, this paper argues that recent research and discourse on the topic is insufficient and that specific actions are needed to ensure that this transformation does not take place on the backs of the rural poor.

Research Series 69: Structural and rural transformation and food systems: a quantitative synthesis for LMICs

April 2022
Using country-level data from 85 low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), this paper outlines a food systems index (FSI) and analyses the linkages between food systems and structural and rural transformation, as well as population distributions.

Research Series 68: Exploring a food system index for understanding food system transformation processes

April 2022
This paper explores the prospects for a food system index (FSI) capturing several key components that influence differences in food system performance at the country level.

Research Series 67: Towards food systems transformation – five paradigm shifts for healthy, inclusive and sustainable food systems

April 2022
This paper highlights five fundamental paradigm shifts that are required to overcome trade-offs and build synergies between health and nutrition, inclusive livelihoods, environmental sustainability, and food system resilience.

Reinforcing Pacific Food Systems for COVID-19 recovery – key impacts, responses and opportunities to build back better

February 2022
This report offers a consolidated analysis of pre-COVID food security and nutrition challenges across the Pacific Islands and outlines key actions needed to respond to the current impacts, inform medium- to long-term recovery planning, and better prepare for future crises.

Climate adaptation and mitigation measures for nutrition co-benefits in IFAD investments in Lesotho

June 2021
This report describes the findings of the country study carried out for the design of IFAD project on Restoration of Landscapes and Livelihoods (ROLL P) in Lesotho.

Climate adaptation and mitigation measures for nutrition co-benefits in IFAD investments in Zimbabwe

June 2021
This report describes the findings of the country study carried out for the design of IFAD Smallholder Agriculture Cluster Project (SACP) in Zimbabwe.

Climate adaptation and mitigation measures for nutrition co-benefits in IFAD investments in Ghana

June 2021
This report describes the findings of the country study carried out for the design of IFAD project on Livelihood and Productivity Enhancement of Smallholder Farmers (PROSPER) in Ghana.

Food-system interventions with climate change and nutrition co-benefits: a literature review

June 2021
This literature review report explores the conceptual linkages between climate change and nutrition using a food system approach.

Research Series Issue 65: Impacts of agricultural value chain development in a mountainous region: Evidence from Nepal

May 2021
This analysis investigates the potential mechanism and the practical significance of the impacts of agricultural value chain development in a geographically challenging rural area of a developing country.

Innovation Catalogue

February 2021
The Innovation Catalogue showcases a set of 23 solutions to challenges faced by small-scale producers in East and Southern Africa.

Managing agricultural risk through remittances: the case of Senegal

December 2020
This feasibility study explains the role of remittances in agricultural risk management.

Research Series Issue 64: How the adoption of drought-tolerant rice varieties impacts households in a non-drought year: Evidence from Nepal

December 2020
Stress-tolerant rice varieties (STRVs) are bred to be high yielding and tolerant to climate shocks such as drought.

Digital gender inequality in Latin America and the Caribbean

October 2020
The technological revolution has made it possible for digital connectivity to reach rural areas.

Impact Assessment: Strengthening Local Development in the Highlands and High Rainforest Areas Project (PSSA)

September 2020
PSSA aimed to unlock rural development and poverty reduction in Peru by supporting the design and implementation of business plans created by Producer Associations, targeting two of the country’s poorest regions.

Research Series Issue 63: The adoption of improved agricultural technologies - A meta-analysis for Africa

August 2020
In this paper, particular attention is given to the identification and promotion of productivity and resilience enhancing agricultural practices.

The State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World 2020

July 2020
Transforming food systems for affordable healthy diets.

Research Series Issue 62: The spillover effects of seed producer groups on non-member farmers in mid-hill communities of Nepal

June 2020
Rice farmers in the mid-hills region of Nepal are vulnerable to drought, which can drastically reduce yields. Stress-tolerant rice varieties can mitigate this vulnerability, as can having a high seed replacement rate and using best management practices in rice cultivation.

Impact Assessment: Gente de Valor – Rural Communities Development Project in the Poorest Areas of the State of Bahia

May 2020
The Rural Communities Development in the Poorest Areas of the State of Bahia (Project Gente de Valor) was designed to strengthen the capacity of rural communities to thrive in the drought-prone environment of Brazil's north-east region through improved access to water, increased productive capacity, and empowerment of participating communities.

Regional Overview of Food Security and Nutrition in the Near East and North Africa 2019

May 2020
This report explores food systems in the Arab States and the policies that support them.

Research Series Issue 61: The narrative on rural youth and economic opportunities in Africa: facts, myths and gaps

December 2019
This paper reviews the narrative on rural youth and economic opportunities in Africa, using a set of policy documents from various African countries and regional and international organizations.

Research Series Issue 60: Investing in rural youth in the Near East, North Africa, Europe and Central Asia

December 2019
This study reviews the opportunities and challenges facing rural youth in the Near East, North Africa, Europe and Central Asia region.

Research Series Issue 59: The rural youth situation in Latin America and the Caribbean

December 2019
This study offers a general picture of the situation of rural youth in Latin America and the Caribbean.

Research Series Issue 58: Investing in rural youth in the Asia and the Pacific region

December 2019
This study characterizes the structural and rural transformation of the Asia and the Pacific region.

Research Series Issue 57: Unlocking the potential of rural youth: the role of policies and institutions

December 2019
This study presents a framework to analyse the political economy of rural youth policy and institutions’ opportunity space with a quadrant that measures the extent to which rural youth are a priority in policies and institutions versus the extent that governments have to effectively implement rural youth policies.

Research Series Issue 56: The impact of migrants’ remittances and investment on rural youth

December 2019
This study analyses how migrants positively contribute to the sustainable economic development of rural youth in their countries of origin.

Research Series Issue 55: Rural youth: determinants of migration throughout the world

December 2019
This study takes a unique look at the determinants of youth migration across seven different countries using recently collected data.

Research Series Issue 54: Rural youth in the context of fragility and conflict

December 2019
While conflicts are often defined as “development in reverse”, there is a general lack of research focusing specifically on young people living in rural areas.

Research Series Issue 53: Youth access to land, migration and employment opportunities: evidence from sub-Saharan Africa

December 2019
This study examines the intersections between youth access to land, migration decisions and employment opportunities in various African countries.

Research Series Issue 52: Information and communication technologies and rural youth

December 2019
This analysis reviews existing research on the impact of digital initiatives on youth in the education, agriculture, financial and employment sectors.

Research Series Issue 51: Inclusive finance and rural youth

December 2019
This study analyses inclusive finance and rural youth through cutting-age research with new insights and approaches that have emerged over the years in the field.

Research Series Issue 50: Rural transformation and the double burden of malnutrition among rural youth in developing countries

December 2019
In this study, we show that rural transformation processes are associated with improvements in rural youth nutrition – malnutrition and underweight – in nearly all regions, although the pace of change varies considerably across countries.

Research Series Issue 49: Climate and jobs for rural young people

December 2019
Climate change matters for all young people, especially for those whose livelihoods depend on agriculture. This study shows that adaptation to climate change is feasible and options increase as new technologies and management approaches come on-stream.

Research Series Issue 48: Rural youth, today and tomorrow

December 2019
Research on rural youth aspirations suggests that many young people are not averse to agriculture as such, but to agriculture’s current neglected condition

Research Series Issue 47: Landscapes of rural youth opportunity

December 2019
This study is motivated by the consistent portrayal of agriculture and the broader rural economy in Africa as domains of opportunity for rural youth.

Research Series Issue 46: Economic participation of rural youth: what matters?

December 2019
A key lesson is that lack of technical skills does not seem to be the biggest obstacle youth face in entering the labour force. Evidence on agricultural extension programmes suggests that peer-to-peer learning works best.

Research Series Issue 45: Rural youth inclusion, empowerment and participation

December 2019
This exploratory study focuses on participation in decision-making processes and how rural youth could benefit from its findings in development projects and initiatives.

Research Series Issue 44: Gender, rural youth and structural transformation: evidence to inform innovative youth programming

December 2019
This study analyses sex-disaggregated data from various countries to characterize rural youths’ transition to adulthood by gender.

Research Series Issue 43: Youth agrifood system employment in developing countries: a gender-differentiated spatial approach

December 2019
Little is known about the economic activities of rural youth. This study provides empirical evidence on this gap in literature.

Research Series Issue 42: What drives rural youth welfare? The role of spatial, economic, and household factors

December 2019
This study uses the concept of the Rural Opportunity Space from economic geography literature to shed light on these questions.

Research Series Issue 41: The demography of rural youth in developing countries

December 2019
Building on United Nations data, this study analyses how past growth of the youth population was dramatic in Asia and the Pacific, while projections suggest a sharp rise in the youth population of sub-Saharan Africa until 2050.

IFAD10 Impact Assessment: An Overview

December 2019
To hold itself accountable on progress made in achieving this goal and these three strategic objectives, IFAD has adopted a unique approach to reporting impact at the corporate level, building on rigorous project-level evaluations. This report provides the results of these efforts to assess the corporate impact of IFAD investments for the Tenth Replenishment of IFAD’s Resources (IFAD10) period of 2016-2018.

Research Series Issue 40: Local-economy impacts of cash crop promotion

October 2019
This is the first study to quantify the general equilibrium impacts of introducing a new cash crop into a poor isolated economy, including impacts on environmentally sensitive fishing activities.

Research Series Issue 39: Smallholder farming, growth linkages, structural transformation and poverty reduction

September 2019
There are different views around the future of smallholder agriculture and its potential to contribute to the needed transformations of agriculture and rural economies.

Impact assessment: The Coastal Community Development (CCDP)

August 2019
The Coastal Community Development Project (CCDP), implemented between 2013 and 2017, was designed to reduce poverty and achieve sustainable economic growth in 12 coastal districts of Indonesia.

The State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World 2019

July 2019
This year’s report presents evidence that the absolute number of people who suffer from hunger continues to slowly increase. The report also highlights that food insecurity is more than just hunger.

Research Series Issue 38: Meta-evidence review on the impacts of investments in agricultural and rural development on Sustainable Development Goals 1 and 2

June 2019
Agriculture and rural development research will play a critical role in meeting the ambitious targets under SDGs 1 and 2.

Soy papa no papá: Historias de cambios destacables y resultados del proyecto FIDA-CIP Andes

June 2019
La historia de Gaby Quispe es la historia de lo que buscaba el proyecto FIDA-CIP-Andes. Su historia de cambio fue calificada entre sus pares de la organización de productores y por los socios y aliados del proyecto como la que mejor representa lo que buscaba la intervención.

Research Series Issue 37: Determinants of cofinancing in IFAD-funded projects - A call to rethink development interventions

May 2019
This study is an analysis of what drives cofinancing in IFAD-supported programmes/projects, covering 20 years of data from 559 projects in 109 countries.

Impact assessment: PAPAFPA and PAPAC

April 2019
The Participatory Smallholder Agriculture and Artisanal Fisheries Development Programme (PAPAFPA) and the Smallholder Commercial Agriculture Project (PAPAC) are complementary projects designed to improve the livelihoods of smallholders in Sao Tomé and Príncipe. PAPAFPA, which has now closed, created farmers’ cooperatives to improve the development of organic cacao, coffee, and pepper value chains through increased commercialization in domestic and niche export markets.

Research Series Issue 36: Who works in agriculture?

April 2019
This analysis examines the dynamics of youth employment in agriculture and the agri-food system in Tanzania and Malawi.

Impact assessment: Coastal Climate Resilient Infrastructure Project (CCRIP)

April 2019
Farmers in southwestern Bangladesh, an area prone to natural disasters, are sometimes unable to reach community markets in the monsoon season.

Impact assessment: Plan VIDA-PEEP to Eradicate Extreme Poverty – Phase I

March 2019
From 2011 to 2016, the Plan VIDA project in Bolivia was implemented to address extreme poverty in rural areas by increasing the incomes and assets of rural people in the departments of Potosí and Cochabamba of the Plurinational State of Bolivia

Research Series Issue 35: Climate change mitigation potential of agricultural practices supported by IFAD investments An ex ante analysis

March 2019
This study estimates the mitigation potential of agricultural practices supported by IFAD’s current investments in order to provide guidance for the design of future investments.

Research Series Issue 34: Farm size and productivity - Lessons from recent literature

January 2019
This paper considers the relationship between farm size and productivity patterns across countries and within countries.

IFAD Results Series Issue 3

December 2018
This issue presents and analyses experiences from the following IFAD-funded projects and programmes...

Impact assessment: Agricultural Sector Development Programme–Livestock (ASDP-L) and Agriculture Service Support Programme (ASSP)

December 2018
Despite decades of research and development of technologies and innovations which improve farming practices and productivity, small farmers in Tanzania continue to use technologies and practices which do not favour high yields and economic returns.

Research Series Issue 33 - The impact of the adoption of CGIAR's improved varieties on poverty and welfare outcomes: A systematic review

December 2018
This paper examines the impact of agricultural research on poverty and welfare by conducting a systematic review of experimental and quasi-experimental impact evaluations of improved varieties disseminated by CGIAR between 2007 and 2015.

Impact assessment: Project for Rural Income through Exports in Rwanda

December 2018
The Project for Rural Income through Exports in Rwanda, known by its acronym PRICE, aims to increase returns to farmers through the development of export-driven value chains for coffee, tea, sericulture and horticulture.

Impact assessment: Irrigated Rice Production Enhancement Project

December 2018
The Irrigated Rice Production Enhancement Project (IRPEP) was implemented between 2010 and 2015 to improve the rice productivity and livelihoods of smallholder farmers who cultivate on Communal Irrigation Schemes in three regions (Western Visayas, Central Visayas and Northern Mindanao) of the Philippines.

Impact assessment: Rural Development Support Programme in Guéra

December 2018
The Rural Development Support Programme in Guéra (PADER-G) was implemented to improve the food security and livelihoods of farmers living in remote areas of Guéra, a drought-prone and conflict-ridden region of Chad.

Impact assessment: Guangxi Integrated Agricultural Development Project

December 2018
The Guangxi Integrated Agricultural Development Project (GIADP) was implemented in 623 Administrative Villages in the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region of China to increase income of smallholder farmers by developing community infrastructures

Impact assessment: High-Value Agriculture Project in Hill and Mountain Areas

December 2018
The High-Value Agriculture Project in Hill and Mountain Areas (HVAP) integrated farmers living in the remote hill and mountain areas of Mid-Western Nepal into the local economy of goats and high-valued crops such as apples and Sichuan pepper (timur).

Impact Assessment: Livestock and Pasture Development Project

December 2018
In Khatlon Oblast, the poorest region of Tajikistan, decades of overgrazing has degraded pastoral land leading to low milk and meat production, food insecurity and malnutrition in rural areas.

Impact Assessment: Community-based Forestry Development Project in Southern States (DECOFOS)

December 2018
Deforestation and unsustainable management practices have had a significant impact on the livelihoods of poor rural communities in the forest areas of Campeche, Chiapas and Oaxaca states in Mexico.

Impact assessment: Agricultural Value Chains Support Project (PAFA)

December 2018
The Agricultural Value Chains Support Project (PAFA) aimed to improve the livelihoods of smallholder farmers in Senegal’s Groundnut Basin.

Impact assessment: Participatory Small-Scale Irrigation Development Programme

December 2018
Rural people in the Ethiopian highlands depend mainly on rain-fed subsistence farming for their livelihoods.

Research Series Issue 32 - Developing country-wide farming system typologies: An analysis of Ethiopian smallholders’ income and food security

November 2018
This paper aims to better understand the context in which smallholder farms operate.

Collection and analysis of bilateral or tripartite work collaboration in Latin America and the Caribbean, 2012-2017

November 2018
FAO, IFAD and WFP have developed joint actions in the Latin American and Caribbean region with the common goal of eradicating hunger and malnutrition and promoting sustainable agriculture and rural development.

Research Series Issue 31 - Impact of modern irrigation on household production and welfare outcomes

October 2018
Investments in irrigation systems have been shown to substantially improve farmers’ productivity, and thus alleviate poverty. This study provides an example of such an investment: the Participatory Small-Scale Irrigation Development Programme.

Research Series Issue 30 - Nutrition-sensitive value chains from a smallholder perspective: A framework for project design

October 2018
This paper addresses an important gap regarding the systematic knowledge and evidence on how value chains can contribute to nutrition, while remaining financially viable and inclusive of smallholder farmers.

Research Series Issue 29 - Empowering through collective action

October 2018
This paper explores the conditions for collective action to generate inclusion when agriculture transforms.

The State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World 2018

September 2018
New evidence in The State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World (SOFI) 2018 confirms a rise in world hunger: the number of people who suffer from hunger has been growing over the past three years, returning to levels from almost a decade ago.
Additional languages: Arabic, English, Spanish, French, Russian, Chinese

Research Series Issue 28 - Understanding the dynamics of adoption decisions and their poverty impacts. The case of improved maize seeds in Uganda

August 2018
This study estimates the impact of agricultural research, specifically improved maize seeds varieties, on agricultural productivity and welfare in Uganda using a three-wave panel survey.

Effective rural development: IFAD’s evidence-based approach to managing for results

July 2018
This report reflects IFAD’s ongoing efforts to generate evidence to inform decision-making at the corporate and project level.

Research Series Issue 27 - Asia’s rural-urban disparity in the context of growing inequality

July 2018
This paper uses the available cross-country data to analyse the causes for the increase in the disparity between rural and urban areas in Asia.

Research Series Issue 26 - Exploration of a methodology for assessing the impact of policy engagement. What impact and how to assess it?

June 2018
Policy engagement is a difficult activity to accurately monitor and evaluate, particularly when development agencies are interested in attributing impact to their efforts.

Research Series Issue 25 - Structural transformation and poverty in Malawi. Decomposing the effects of occupational and spatial mobility

May 2018
This paper aims to identify the main drivers of poverty reduction in Malawi. Using an augmented poverty decomposition methodology, it explores in what way the different farm and non-farm economic activities contribute to poverty reduction and income growth.

Research Series Issue 24 - Influence of nutrition-sensitive interventions on dietary profiles of smallholder farming households in East and Southern Africa

May 2018
This paper aims to explore the influence of nutrition-sensitive interventions on dietary profiles of the beneficiaries of IFAD-funded projects.

Journal of Law and Rural Development - Issue 2: Renewable Energy and Rural Development

May 2018
The Journal of Law and Rural Development provides a forum where the link between law and rural development can be explored.

Research Series Issue 23 - The Effect of the Sectoral Composition of Economic Growth on Rural and Urban Poverty

April 2018
This paper analyses the channels through which growth reduces poverty by evaluating the relationship between the sectoral composition of economic growth and the rural-urban composition of poverty.

Research Series Issue 22 - Poverty reduction during the rural-urban transformation

April 2018
This paper analyses the relation between urbanization and poverty reduction, by exploring the role of secondary towns, mega cities and rural non-agricultural sector in relation to poverty reduction.

Research Series Issue 21 - Does relative deprivation induce migration? Evidence from sub-Saharan Africa

March 2018
This paper challenges the traditional view that portrays income maximization as the main driver of migration and tests whether relative deprivation and social inequality lead to migration in sub-Saharan Africa. Examining data from the Living Standards Measurements Study – Integrated Surveys in Agriculture (LSMS-ISA) from Tanzania, Ethiopia, Malawi, Nigeria and Uganda, the paper finds that a household’s migration decision is based not only on its well-being status, but also on the position of the household relative to the wealth distribution in the local community. Results indicate that relative deprivation of wealth was positively associated with migration, implying a need to renew the discussion of relative deprivation and social inequality as a cause of migration in sub-Saharan Africa.

Developing nutrition-sensitive value chains in Indonesia

February 2018
In Indonesia’s eastern Maluku and North Maluku provinces, malnutrition levels are high. Nutrition challenges include monotonous diets with inadequate levels of energy, micronutrients and protein. Studies commissioned by IFAD suggest that strengthened value chains for foods such as bananas, cassava, maize, spinach, sweet potatoes and fish could make business sense for smallholders and lay the foundations for a strong local food system that sustainably delivers nutritious foods for healthy diets.

Mapeo Participativo - Diálogos y acuerdos entre actores

January 2018
Este trabajo surge de la sistematización de cuatro experiencias de resolución pacífica de conflictos territoriales por la tierra, el agua y otros recursos naturales usando el mapeo participativo. La metodología aplicada incluye la identificación del problema y luego el mapeo participativo como iniciador del diálogo, la incidencia pública y la generación de acuerdos.

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