Elsa Espinoza Delgado: interview transcript

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Elsa Espinoza Delgado: interview transcript

Elsa Espinoza Delgado is a student who was aged 23 when she was interviewed on 30 November 2009 for the Rural Poverty Report 2011. The interview was conducted in Chachpoyas at Calandria's office. The interview was recorded in Spanish and carried out by a staff member from Calandria. The interviewer had an existing relationship with the community but was not a professional researcher.

Interviewer's introduction: I met up with Elsa at the Main Square of Chachapoyas. She greeted me with a warm hug and we sat on a bench talking for a little. Suddenly, something distracted her. She was looking at one corner of the square, trying to find out what was happening. "They are fumigating that corner", she said, adding "They are using pesticides in a public place and that is a very toxic dust." She excused herself and approached the municipal workers, and talked to them with much authority. When she returned, she told me that she had requested the men to carry out that work at night. I never knew if the men did or did not do what she had asked, but the important fact was that she was able to express exactly what she wanted to.

We then headed to my office, to talk in a quieter place. While we walked, Elsa told me about her projects and plans, and of how much she had learned in her new job. She sounded like a tinker bell, talking and talking, young and smiling all the time.

Elsa's story is an illustration of how, when someone has well defined goals in life, any obstacle can be overcome. 

Well, we are with Elsa Espinoza, a student of Business Administration & Tourism at the Toribio Rodríguez de Mendoza University in Chachapoyas. She is one of the people that we are about to interview today for the report. Tell me a little bit about you… how old are you?
I am aged 23.

Tell me about your family… how many siblings do you have?
Well… firstly, I want to thank you for the opportunity that you are offering me now for expressing some opinions that may be favourable to some youth, or may be useful for the topics that you are developing in the focus groups, such as poverty… and others that I don't remember.

In that sense, I really hope that my contribution can be useful for the development of the product that you plan to obtain. 

Well, let me start by saying that I am a native of the district of Copallín, province of Bagua. We are five siblings in our family, and I am the oldest. In this sense, it's a big responsibility to lead on my younger siblings, but also a challenge and a serious responsibility in front of them.

Where is Copallín, is it located close to Bagua?
Copallín is a district in the province of Bagua, it's a rural district, and the population is mainly devoted to farming. They usually grow yucca, bananas, papayas, pineapples and coffee; most of the people are peasants. It takes about 75 minutes to reach Copallín from Bagua. You can only reach my hometown by colectivos (vehicles for public transport).

How was your childhood? Tell me about it… Did you spend it in Copallín?
Well… it was very quiet. My mum got married very young, at the age of 16, so I had the responsibility to help in the raising of my siblings: I was the oldest sister; I am two… three years older than my brother. So you can imagine that I had to look after them. Besides living my own childhood, playing and enjoying myself like the other children, I had to be in charge of my younger siblings. But I can say that mine was a very quiet and peaceful childhood. We lived in the countryside, a very nice place, and that's why I am so fond of environment and nature, because I grew up and spent my childhood there.    

How many siblings did you tell me you are?

 And you are the oldest of the five?
Yes, I am the oldest.

 How old is your youngest brother or sister?
Oh, she is just three years and and six months, she is a little kid.

 Regarding the topic of your childhood living with four siblings, what conditions did you live in…? I mean economical conditions? Were they good enough? Did you live under poverty, or didn't you?
Well, let's say… we didn't actually live in a golden cradle, but we didn't face real poverty either. My mum and my dad were concerned about us, they were devoted to their farm, although they are not professionals. My dad is a peasant, so he dedicated himself to organize his family and raise all of his children as well.  

This was the reason for my development, so now I am starting my professional life.

 If you could tell me what the moments were – both good and bad – which marked your life, which ones would they be?
Throughout my life?

Yes, all through your life… any moment when you said: I will do this from now on
In what aspect?
Maybe in the aspect of your studies or your family. I mean, those moments when you have had to make decisions, for instance, the fact of assuming that you are the oldest child in your family, and you have to look after your siblings. 
Well, it was not only that…for instance, I remember a very hard moment when my mum was at the edge of death; that marked me quite deeply, and made me reflect, so I decided to take control of my own life; that's why I came over to Chachapoyas, and I have lived there for six years now. I have developed an almost independent life here. I should admit that I have been very close to my mum, though we have become a little separated from each other during these six years.

That marked me deeply because I reflected and thought: OK, I am far away from my family, I live distantly from them, but I will always be communicating with them. That doesn't mean that I will become isolated from my family; it is indeed the opposite.

This became a real challenge for me… looking after my siblings marked my life…because if my mum went away, she would be gone forever, and that would also mark my life.

Another remarkable moment occurred when I first assumed the representation of a juvenile organization; in fact, I hadn't ever had such a responsibility. I was a very shy and antisocial person, and not very communicative as well.   

When I started at the university, thanks to God, I had the chance to be democratically elected by the young people to represent them. It was really a big challenge, and I took it with much responsibility… realizing how many activities I would have to perform, I assumed it. Rather than a challenge, it was a big responsibility and commitment to my classmates, and I can say that it marked my life positively…

Elsa, why did you leave Bagua and made up your mind about coming over to Chachapoyas?
At first I didn't want to separate from my parents… but anyway, I had to take up my responsibility and come over to Chachapoyas to study and work. My mum was sick at that moment and we needed money, since my dad couldn't make enough, so I headed for Chachapoyas. My dad made arrangements with the Church in Bagua, and I was offered a scholarship covering food and housing here at the House of Alliance. 

 What is the House of Alliance?
It is an institution belonging to the Church that supports poor youth from the provinces of Amazonas, so that they can continue their studies in Chachapoyas. That has been a great help, and has given my parents tranquillity because I was not going to come over here all by myself, but I was coming to stay at a sort of boarding house for students.  

If you had been offered a place in the coastal region (Chiclayo or Lima), would you have accepted?
No, definitely not, I have always lived with my parents and my siblings. Coming over to Chachapoyas was too much for me. But I couldn't go further away from my family. I can go from Chachapoyas to Copallín, Bagua, it takes me about five hours… but I wouldn't go further away.

How old were you when you came over into Chachapoyas?
I was 17.

What did that mean to your parents, to your family, taking into consideration that you are the oldest child?
At first it was very complicated, my siblings had to learn to assist themselves…now they are almost grownups, so things are more bearable.   

How did you like living alone? Do you have any relatives in Chachapoyas?
At first it was very complicated, I come from the north of Amazonas, and it's very hot out there. But on the contrary, it's very cold in Chachapoyas, so I suffered from respiratory diseases all the time. I also missed my parents very much, I was very shocked. But now, thanks to God, it has passed; now I have become accustomed to the weather and people over here in Chachapoyas.

As for my relatives, a cousin of my mum's lives here, he is very fond of me, and I am living at his house now. I feel as if I were living in my own home and with my own family.

 Would you return to Bagua?
Yes, but later on, when I become a professional, when I am awarded my title.

Tell me, your youngest sister is three years and six months, isn't she? When you were her age, did you have the same opportunities that she has now? I mean, playgrounds, spaces for health and education, etc..? 
I didn't have such spaces or the same opportunities that she has now. Indeed, at that time my parents were facing a hard financial time. I have memories of that because my parents were about to separate, my dad went away from home for some time, so my mum had to assume all the responsibility for her children. 

It was me, the oldest, and my brother at that time, but my mum had to assume all the responsibility, and she was aged only 17, she was very young, so I think that I didn't have the same opportunities.

How long were you living without your father? What did your mother do to support you?
She washed clothes or did sewing for other people. She also worked as a housemaid or cleaned houses in Bagua. In fact, the farm wasn't very profitable, so she had to look for money anywhere to support us...

When you lived with your family, did you run your farm, were you peasants or not? I mean, did you grow crops in the fields, or what did you dedicate to?
Well, my dad is a peasant, he grows rice and cocoa.

Is he still doing that?
Yes, he still does that.

And what about your mum?
My mum does the household chores now, but she studied at an Occupational Education Centre to become a seamstress; she sews.

Now tell me… you are a young woman who has a number of needs… what about the matter of access to services? I say that because access to services largely depends on financial resources, and also on facilities by the State….
Well, I perceive that access to services is not equally reached by all; I mean, not everyone is assisted in the same manner, I mean, regarding the matter of health. Not everyone has the same opportunities to be assisted as they should be, and if they have, it's done in a non-efficient way.  

The people who are in charge of offering this service do not offer it in the best way: they first see your face, and if you look like a peasant from the rural areas, they do not treat you well, as they treat the people from urban areas.

They are not offering a quality service, but a service showing marginalization. And it also happens on the topic of justice, if you have no money, then you are not assisted. If you have no money, justice doesn't reach you.

I think that there is a lot to do on that matter, and also on the topic of education. Regrettably, we see - and that makes me feel angry – that teachers in charge are not high quality... And those who live in rural areas suffer from this… because when you go to a distant village, you realize that the teachers there don't comply with their work. They only stay two or three days, and are not concerned about training themselves. The level of health, justice and education doesn't reach everyone equally, and that causes anger, I get angry that such things happen in our country. 

OK, let's talk a little about the organizations and institutions that exist here in Chachapoyas… if you have to cite a number of civil society groups, institutions or people that work here… do you know any? What type of movements, organizations or institutions exist, and what is their role?
Well… on the topic of youth, or another topic?
Generally speaking…
Well… I think that there actually are a few institutions… not many of them, for instance… the Association of University Students, the Association of Students Wampis Awajun (an association of indigenous students who live and study in Chachapoyas), the Network InterQuorum (a youth association made up of university students), the Social Christian Forum (a platform to brings together networks and collectives).

Also, there are other organizations that are gradually emerging and becoming integrated; actually, there are quite a few that have a very significant role in our society. Each association works on different topics, but youth participation is rather scarce in these different organizations.

Do you participate, or have you participated in any of them?
Well, presently I am participating in the network InterQuorumChachapoyas.

What are the benefits for you of being in the network InterQuorum?
The benefits are multiple. Firstly, thanks to this organization; I could shape myself both as a person and as a professional. As I told you formerly, I used to be a non-communicative person in my secondary school years, I even felt embarrassed to talk before an audience and develop myself…

However, being in this organization gives me the chance to become trained in a region of Peru or Latin America; as a matter of fact, I recently travelled to Chile and Ecuador. This allowed me to share experiences and knowledge with other youth, and it made me realize that my world doesn't end here, but it continues beyond. That helps you to develop yourself, fill yourself up with knowledge, and share it with other youth.

Tell me something about what you do, about the network InterQuorum and its goals and objectives…
Well, the network InterQuorum is a youth organization, the main goal of which is to strengthen ideas and democracy in our country and our region. I think that there's a real lack of leadership, not only among youth, but also among adults.

So, basically, it's a matter of forming leaders in democracy, on different topics, environment, sexual health, reproductive rights, leadership, gender equity, and the topic of anticorruption, which is a topic that needs to be developed. 

And our goal is to form such leaders, so they will perform on some key issues in the future, and represent all young people before a public or private institution, and exert their leadership as it should be exerted, not half-way, but as something positive, on behalf of the society.

What large and/or important activities have you performed here in Chachapoyas?
Well, we have had two years of active work in the district of Chachapoyas, we have carried out environmental campaigns in the district of Luya Viejo (province of Luya) through drawing and painting contests directed at boys and girls; and we have also participated in campaigns on behalf of the tree planting and reforestation. 

In the network InterQuorum we also address the topic of anticorruption, so we have organized a number of activities, such as forums and workshops with youth. Recently we carried out a workshop, a macro regional event, the eighth northern macro regional workshop, which brought together the eight regions that form the macro region; also, some people attended from the neighbouring country of Ecuador.

So this is what you have done up to the present day, right?
Yes, up to the moment

And what have you planned to do afterwards?
Well, from outcomes that we achieved in the northern macro regional [workshop], one of the objectives has been to consolidate the macro [region?] through its youth, and the last event… the commitment that we have made is that the topics that we have developed -- environmental, globalization, political governance -- should be reinforced in each region… Regarding the topic of participation and youth… it's time that we focused on these topics, but in a different way.

The idea is to develop the content of projects that will benefit the community as a whole, not that just benefit us as youth… and focus on the different issues on which we can work . Above all, we are prioritizing the children, working on behalf of the children above all.    

In 2010, we plan to work on small projects, starting with children. Those who attended the forums are university students, and each one can contribute and develop projects from their own speciality.

Is there any special project?
Well, now we are developing a project called Manitos del Mañana (Little Hands of Tomorrow)… we are creating a space for education and recreation. In this case, it is being developed in the province of Luya (50 minutes away from Chachapoyas) with children aged eight to11. We have divided the age groups… it's a space for extra-curricular education, very separate from the formal education.

Some leadership and environmental workshops will be held, and also a ludoteca (playground) will be constructed, a kind of space for children's recreation, as well as other participatory workshops, where children can show their skills, they can revalue and promote culture. We have a leadership workshop, a promotion committee etc.

And in the Luya project, I guess that you are working with the population; it's an environmental project, isn't it? And it is intended for children, which is a population that has shortages?
So, what is the goal? What would be the contribution for reducing poverty and improving life conditions in the zone? Does the project receive financial funds, how do you get funds for these projects?
Well, the project is not totally environmental… Manitos del Mañana means that we will work with children… it's a project about creating a space foreducation and recreation, where children can spend their time using their skills, capacities and abilities.

Because sadly to say, children from rural areas, after they leave school, they go to their farms everyday and don't have any space for recreation… children also get stressed because they have no recreation space at all. 

We chose Luya because it's a not very developed town; there is not any space where children can develop themselves, so the project is basically focused on this aspect.

And we do just this, the children become quite entertained. As I told you, we will have workshops, other spaces and a playground, not only games but teaching them how to use a computer, and what is leadership.

We should prepare the children from their early childhood… Also we should do artistic workshops because every child has his or her own skills, and through it we can strengthen those skills, and prepare the children. 

We are getting some sponsorship for this from companies, private institutions and a number of municipalities.

If you had the chance to incorporate or meliorate the people's lives, what would you add to them, where should the project focus in order to achieve an improvement?
For example, we have focused the project on working with children because we know that they belong to the future, so we should ourselves focus on them.

In this way, we will contribute to the fight against the poverty… we believe that - through these workshops – the children will get a new mentality, because there is also a workshop upon undertaking, so that they will get a different perspective since their childhood, and it will build up the way in which they will continue with their studies in the future. We should help them in this sense, for example.

OK… do you think that the Luya population is under a poverty situation, or not?
Yes, we have reviewed the data about poverty in Luya in order to perform field work… we designed a baseline, and realized that it's quite poor.  

Do you think that there some persons poorer than others, or is everyone is under the same poverty condition?
There are some children that are poorer than others, not all are equal.

What do you think are the causes?
It's mostly due to the lack of employment, for example… some parents don't have the same opportunity as others, not all of them have the chance of getting a job. Most of them are peasants, the land is not productive enough, and so the yields become low.  

They are peasants, and as the yields aren't abundant, they don't get spaces to sell their products. For example, there is a season for growing potatoes, but the yield is low, so the prices reduce. But then the peasants don't dedicate themselves to another kind of activity, only agriculture, so there isn't any other kind of activity that they can teach their children.

Do you think that this community is more vulnerable now - on the matter of poverty, for example – than it was some years ago?... or do you think that there is a tendency towards becoming poorer, or people's lives improving?
I think that the trend is to become poorer.

Why do you think so? What criteria or elements permit you to think that that is the trend?... I mean, you say that one of the criteria can be the unemployment, so that the trend is the lack of employment, or a job that doesn't guarantee the needs of satisfaction. 
Another can be that children don't usually finish elementary or secondary school; they don't continue with their studies, so they don't have the chance to develop 

Because the only solution for leaving poverty behind is education, if you keep on studying, maybe you will have the chance to get a job, but they stop studying in primary school, and therefore they don't have the opportunities that other youth do. 

Do you think that the people could utilize other resources, skills or abilities for leaving a situation of poverty behind? Or maybe it depends on the capacity of the men's acquisitive power?   
I think that we can actually leave poverty behind through productive projects that can be generated… for example, Luya has many tourist highlights, and this presents a great opportunity for coming out of poverty.

And people can be trained, and some can become tourist guides, or can start a type of tourist business, but to undertake this we need money, though we can start from zero, little by little.   

Regrettably, the tourists who go to Amazonas do not reach Luya; they just go to the the specific touristic site and come back to Chachapoyas, so they do not leave any income in Luya. This is also a point that we should work on.

Few people stay in Luya, almost nobody uses the accommodation and food services. But I think that if there had been harder work [on this], there would be more opportunities.

One of the things that you just mentioned is that children don't have spaces or time for playing, right?... If you compared that with your own childhood, for example, do you think that it was the same, or do you think that you had more space and time for playing? If you had to compare the childhood of the children of Luya with your own childhood, do you think that you had better opportunities?
I think that I had more opportunities and more time for recreation during my childhood, not as many as I should have, but a little more than the children now. They are repressed, more devoted to assisting their parents on the farm, in agriculture, or in other areas, maybe not at the farm, but in other activities.

Do you think that there are some people or groups of people more vulnerable in this population? If you had to consider the population from children to elder people… what segment, what social level, what public is the most vulnerable? Only the children, or is there another population more vulnerable?
Besides the children, there are also the mothers; we have identified a number of unmarried mothers who have to assume the entire load and commitment oftheir kids.

Well, basically, it's them and some older people too.

Do you think that life conditions and the opportunities for coming out from poverty have reduced in Amazonas, or the department is becoming poorer and poorer every day?
Well, according to statistic data, the population of Amazonas is considered the penultimate poorest population of Peru.

They say that many projects are being carried out in the region, but most of them are architectural projects, not projects that involve the community. I mean, the projects that are being carried out don't involve the community, so the population doesn't feel like participants in them.

Therefore the work performed by these companies doesn't influence the population much.

And how do you think that the community should become involved?
Firstly, informing them about what kind of projects they want carried out, so the results can be seen through their participation.

Do you think that that could improve the people's condition, or just could improve the capacity of more people involved? I mean, will this benefit be personal or communal?
Logically, it would be of benefit for those people who become involved, but at the same time, other people would see the results that are occurring, and would also become involved.  

Which would be the priorities in Amazonas?
I think that the basic items are health and education.

What are the conditions presently regarding education? When I asked you about the conditions that youth have with respect to these services, you answered that there are some places to study, but the problem is the lack of resources.
Now we should think about other communities and other youth in Amazonas and what are the perceptions here in Amazonas about the conditions of education.  
Your question refers to the topic of education?

Yes, it does.
Because, basically, we should have to work right there, the priority should be the formation of youth, that is the basis for the formation of the professional life that the person will undertake.

And it is necessary -- because if you have no education, you have nothing, right? Then, in this sense, for me it's the topics of health and education, both of them go hand in hand, without education and health there is no development on any side.

OK… Elsa, you are aged 23?
Yes, I am.

Did you get through secondary school? Sometimes women don't. Did your siblings also go? What education stage are they in presently?
All of them are still studying… preschool, primary or secondary school. The second is studying at the Pedagogical Institute in Bagua; the third will finish secondary school this year, after that he will come over to Chachapoyas to follow higher studies.

Now you are following a career… what are you studying, and where? 
Tourism and administration.

Both careers or just one?
Well, as a matter of fact, it's denominated like that, but it's indeed Administration for Tourism.

How are you getting along in that career, Bachelor in Administration for Tourism? How do you forecast your own future? Is it a good, wished for future? How do you see it?
Well, it's a good future, a predictable and good one… within five years from now, I see myself almost finishing my MBA. I plan to finish my thesis by next year, get a degree, and then follow my MBA studies, that's what I want, so I see myself like that within five years from now. 

What would be your main concerns in a few years from now?
My main concern is climate change, which is a worrying topic for everyone. I am very concerned and upset about it. I feel angry that other people, despite of professional experience they have, show little or no interest in contributing, at least with a few actions, for the mitigation of climate change.

So I feel very upset about that, and I see that our region will be badly affected by climate change in the future.

And what are your concerns and inquiries at personal level? Or you don't have any…
Yes, I do…
What kind of?
Well, my main concerns are the levels of competence in the professional field, for example, to prepare myself more and more each day, to become competitive.

Getting stability in work, that's what I want.

 Do you think that the working stability will improve here in Amazonas? As you become more competitive, will it be more likely that you will find a job, according to your professionalism. Do you think that it will be too complicated to find the job that you want, or do you think that it is possible to find one in the ecological field?
I think that, if I keep on preparing myself and making my best efforts, I won't find many obstacles, although it's a real fact that there is a lot of competition. Many professionals come from other regions, with more experience and a higher level of professionalism than me.

That's why I should keep on preparing myself and make my best efforts, so I can contribute to my region, because this is the region where I was born and grew up, so I have to give something to it in return.

OK, what are your hopes?
My hopes are to see an integrated region, with much work, and especially that the authorities that rule our region should work with much effort, but in an agreed manner with the civil society, not separately.

And yes, I see a good future because I know that the youth who are being formed… we are the present of our country and our region. I have hopes that the youth who are being formed and coming out from the universities have a different vision of our future, a new way to see our region in the future.

Well, I have the hopes that this society will change, though I know it's very difficult, but not impossible. We have to work very hard on that, so I have hopes that our region will change.

What would your contribution be?
I would work very hard, in an interested manner, on behalf of children.

I love to work with children, and that's what I plan to do. I plan to raise a foundation for homeless children, so that these children would have the same opportunities…I think that this would be a good way to contribute, and I could also contribute through some projects.

Can you imagine yourself always living in Chachapoyas?
No, I want to return to my hometown Copallín, and share what I have learned with my fellows… It would be so nice if my hometown would become a tourist place!

OK… how do you see your sibling's life within 15 years?
It's a worrying matter for me, because I am aware that, within five…10 years… from now a dramatic change is expected on our planet, and what the researchers report is really worrying and alarming

If God permits me to stay alive for 10 years, I would feel very sorry to see my sister unhappy and suffering a shortage of water, it's really worrying. Even my mum says so.

From the personal aspect, I always say that I don't plan to get married or have kids, because what kind of future am I going to leave for them to develop themselves? So I see my sister not suffering in her personal life, but in the environmental aspect… if you develop yourself, it goes hand in hand with environmental development.   

Let's talk a little about what you are doing at present, what are you doing?
Presently, thanks to the opportunity that I took, I am working in the Municipality of Chachapoyas, in a project for strengthening opportunities for local organizations, and well, I am spending my time there.

And contributing….
Contributing certainly, and also acquiring my first experience outside university, because I have worked in two NGOs, but I haven't worked on the topic of the environment, which is the topic that I want to specialize in. 

So, what are you contributing with? What do you do, what is your contribution?
Well, the work that we are carrying out at the moment is identifying leaders and training them.

Yesterday we had elections for regional and community directive boards…and now we will have the stage of strengthening these leaders, training them on values, self esteem, conflict, all of this.

Changing the subject… tell me what is your opinion about success, what does it mean to you?
Well, success means a person's personal and professional realization; success also means to be loved and considered highly by people, to be valued by what you are and what you do. Success also means the everyday work that you perform and the personal satisfaction for what you have achieved that day regarding the goals that you planned. Success means to be able to say; "I did it, so now I feel happy"… but achieving success is not easy at all.

Do you think that there is someone in Chachapoyas who can be considered successful? Maybe one person or several…
I think there is.

And as for the success of those people that you mention…why do you think that they are successful? Besides the satisfaction of having given all, do you think that they are successful people in the community? What did they do – that others didn't - to achieve that success?
I think that success doesn't come to you just like that, it's a whole process. To reach success you have to experience many things, many difficulties, depending on the goal that you want to achieve.

And the people that I consider successful here in Chachapoyas… I think that they have a lot to do.

Do you think that you could be the same as them?
Maybe… but much more successful than them…

What do you think you could give, that is different from the other people that already achieved success? What is your added value? Because you say that you can actually reach success, so what can you give? What do you think makes you different from the other people for reaching success?
The ability to reach people, different populations, understand and help them in an interested manner, to know them closely and the shortages that they may have.

What do you think that the populations of Chachapoyas, Bagua or any other provinces of Amazonas lack for achieving success? What do they lack as human beings, as persons, what capacities have they not exploited yet?
Exactly…well… I think that some capacities have not been exploited yet, and they also lack a degree of involvement and commitment with the things they do.

More personal benefits than community benefits have been created in the people and the communities where they work, so I think that there's a lack there.

If you were in charge of the community, what would you do in order to achieve those goals? What would you do if you were elected as regional president or mayor?
If I were elected regional president, I would give priority to productive projects in the communities, where everyone has the chance to improve, and I would also give priority to such issues as access to services and road access that would permit that the different communities to connect with one another.

Do you think that the matter of accessibility should also be seen as a problem? In fact, it's a non-prioritized problem, as you say, and lies behind other problems such as health or education. Do you think that it should be at the same level? 
I think that the matter of accessibility is fundamental, because it allows the community to develop and step forward in the matter of trade. It allows a better channel to reach the communities, and allows access to more people and to more markets. I think both things go hand in hand. That is, if a community is very isolated, patients will have to be carried to get health assistance, and if we cannot get there on time, the patient may die. So I think that both things go hand in hand.  

Well, Elsa, thank you very much for your information…I want to ask you a few questions now. We have to fill in some formats with questions that will permit that what we have recorded will be accepted by you, and therefore, utilized for the report.

Let's see… your name again, please…
Elsa Daniela Espinoza Delgado.

Give me some data… first your address…
Currently I am living in the province of Chachapoyas, 576 Arequipa Street.

Date of the interview
We started some minutes before 10 pm, today is November 30, 2009. Now it's 11:20 p.m.

Do you agree for this interview to be published in the Rural Poverty Report?
Yes, I would like to contribute with something to it.

Is there anything in this interview that you wouldn't like to be published?
No, I think that everything should be published, because I have nothing to hide.

If you had to put a name to this interview, what would it be? What name would you like to become associated to this interview?
I have none in mind

Do you agree for us to take some photos to accompany this interview?
Yes, I do, so people know more about it.

Do you wish to receive a copy of this interview?
Yes, I would like to.

The transcription version or the audio one?
I'd prefer the transcription.

Well, that's all, thank you very much.
Thank You….