Madagascar

IFAD Asset Request Portlet

Country

Madagascar

17

Projects Includes planned, ongoing and closed projects

US$ 758.24 million

Total Project Cost

US$ 335.83 million

Total IFAD financing

1,014,600

Households impacted

The Context

Madagascar, located in the Indian Ocean, is the fifth largest island in the world. Its economy is based mainly on agriculture, tourism, production of goods with low added value, and the mining sector, which has benefited from a significant increase in foreign investment. 

Madagascar is very vulnerable to climate change. An estimated 25 per cent of the population, approximately 5 million people, lives in zones at high risk of natural disasters. Over 70 per cent of the island’s inhabitants live below the poverty line, 85 per cent of them in rural areas. 

The agriculture sector is the backbone of Madagascar’s national economy, accounting for 30 per cent of GDP (2009). It generates 30 to 40 per cent of exports and employs 80 per cent of Malagasy families on approximately 2.5 million small farms. The three subsectors – agriculture, livestock and fisheries – are key to reducing poverty and improving food security. They support 75 per cent of the country’s population, accounting for 86 per cent of all jobs and 60 per cent of youth employment. 

Endowed with abundant natural resources, Madagascar has exceptional potential for agricultural development. Rice production is the leading economic activity, generating livelihoods for approximately 10 million inhabitants. Rice is grown by 86 per cent of households. 

The rice sector’s annual average growth rate is only 1.5 per cent, a major cause of rural poverty. Other causes include fragmented production, low productivity, rural insecurity, overuse of natural resources, vulnerability to natural hazards (cyclones, droughts and floods) and limited access to economic and commercial opportunities due to isolation, aging infrastructure and difficulty accessing agricultural markets and rural finance. 

Living conditions have worsened over the past 25 years, while the population has doubled, reaching 17.9 million in 2004. The political crisis of 2009-2013 hampered socioeconomic development, increasing poverty and particularly extreme poverty. The effects were exacerbated by suspension of foreign aid, which represented half of the country's budget. 

The resulting decline in agricultural productivity was further aggravated in 2012 and 2013 by a locust infestation, which destroyed as much as half of food crops, and severe drought, which hampered agricultural production in most regions. Like other countries undergoing rapid population growth, Madagascar struggles to raise agricultural production sufficiently to feed everyone. 

Madagascar has the world’s fourth highest rate of chronic malnutrition (47.3 per cent) and ranks fifteenth in the number of children affected (2 million).

The Strategy

IFAD's strategy in Madagascar, based on its country strategic opportunities programme for 2015-2019, is aimed at improving the incomes and food security of rural poor people, particularly young people and women. 

Two strategic objectives support the approach:

  • Ensure that effective, climate-resilient production systems are widely adopted by farms and rural enterprises;
  • Improve access by rural smallholders and enterprises to markets and priority value chains.

Country Facts

Madagascar is highly vulnerable to natural disasters, including cyclones, droughts and floods. An estimated one quarter of the population (approximately 5 million people) live in zones at high risk of natural disasters.

Since 1979, IFAD has funded 15 rural development projects in Madagascar for a total of US$276.5 million, benefiting more than 694,000 households.

Country documents

Related Assets

Republic of Madagascar Country Strategic Opportunities Programme 2022-2026 Type: Country Strategic Opportunities Programme
Region: East and Southern Africa

Expert-Country-Highrise (no delete)

Projects and Programmes

Projects Browser

PLANNED Under design after concept note approval

APPROVED Approved by the Executive Board or IFAD President

SIGNED Financing agreements signed

ONGOING Under implementation

CLOSED Completed/closed projects

No matching projects were found
No matching projects were found

Related news

Related Assets

IFAD supports projects that increase agricultural productivity and incomes in Madagascar

June 2020 - NEWS
Rural development projects financed and supported by IFAD have helped to reduce rural poverty and increase rural entrepreneurship in Madagascar, according to a new report presented today.

UN’s Rome-based agencies team up to fight hunger and support rural development in Madagascar

March 2017 - NEWS
The UN’s three Rome-based agencies demonstrated the power of working together yesterday when staff from the Madagascar interagency country team were recognized for their work to promote rural resilience and boost food security on the island nation off the east coast of Africa.

Madagascar signs new financing agreement to boost food security, nutrition and incomes of smallholder farmers

October 2015 - NEWS
Rome, 21 October 2015 – The Republic of Madagascar and the United Nations International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) signed an agreement today

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Rural poor people in Madagascar strengthen resilience through land tenure

July 2017 - STORY
In western Madagascar, IFAD-supported projects have been helping people in rural areas gain legal rights to their land – a key tactic in the fight against poverty.

UN’s Rome-based agencies team up to fight hunger and support rural development in Madagascar

March 2017 - STORY
The UN’s three Rome-based agencies demonstrated the power of working together yesterday when staff from the Madagascar interagency country team were recognized for their work to promote rural resilience and boost food security on the island nation off the east coast of Africa.

UN food agencies highlight successful collaboration in the field

March 2017 - STORY
In an example of how the UN's three Rome-based food agencies are stronger working as one, staff from the Madagascar interagency country team were today recognized for their work to promote rural resilience and boost food security in the African island nation.

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Related publications

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Fighting poverty with bamboo

July 2019
For millions of poor people in East and Southern Africa, bamboo has huge potential to alleviate poverty, protect the environment and help achieve the SDGs.

Impact assessment: Project to Support Development in the Menabe and Melaky Regions

October 2017
In Madagascar, the Project to Support Development in the Menabe and Melaky Regions (AD2M) aimed to improve the livelihoods of poor farmers by strengthening their tenure security and access to well-functioning irrigation systems.

Apprenticeship learning and the inclusion of young people in nonagricultural rural activities under a national agricultural and rural training strategy - Reflections on scaling up a pilot experience in Madagascar

June 2011
IFAD’s efforts to promote the innovations launched by its programmes are illustrated here with an analysis of activities to strengthen non-agricultural rural apprenticeships under the Support Programme for Rural Microenterprise Poles and Regional Economies (PROSPERER) and the future Vocational Training and Agricultural Productivity Improvement Programme (FORMAPROD)1 in Madagascar.

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Connecting remote rural communities with financial services

January 2017 - VIDEO
6 January 2017 - Remittance flows to and within Africa amounted to more than US$65 billion in 2016 and are expected to grow to US$80 billion by 2020. These flows represent a lifeline for more than 200 million people.

Adoption of system of rice intensification (SRI)

June 2016 - VIDEO
This is an introduction to a series of 4 training videos and details how IFAD has promoted the spread of SRI from Madagascar to Rwanda and then Burundi. Malagasy farmers went to Rwanda to share their knowledge and Burundian farmers then visited the same Rwandan farmers to take the knowledge back home. This farmer to farmer teaching and learning has proven to be very effective.