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Research Series Issue 21 - Does relative deprivation induce migration? Evidence from sub-Saharan Africa
This paper challenges the traditional view that portrays income maximization as the main driver of migration and tests whether relative deprivation and social inequality lead to migration in sub-Saharan Africa. Examining data from the Living Standards Measurements Study – Integrated Surveys in Agriculture (LSMS-ISA) from Tanzania, Ethiopia, Malawi, Nigeria and Uganda, the paper finds that a household’s migration decision is based not only on its well-being status, but also on the position of the household relative to the wealth distribution in the local community. Results indicate that relative deprivation of wealth was positively associated with migration, implying a need to renew the discussion of relative deprivation and social inequality as a cause of migration in sub-Saharan Africa.
The Water Advantage: Seeking sustainable solutions for water stress
Among ecosystems services, freshwater is one of the most fundamental for life. For smallholders, water means the difference between a decent life and poverty, hunger and malnutrition.
IFAD’s engagement with rural youth
This publication seeks to provide development practitioners, governmental and non-governmental organizations and agencies with insights into the case studies on overcoming the challenges that young people face in diverse contexts.
Invertir en la población rural del Perú
A pesar de que en el último decenio el Perú ha hecho grandes avances en la reducción de la pobreza, disminuyendo significativamente la incidencia a nivel nacional de 42,4 % en 2004 a 20,7 % en 2015, para 2016 la brecha entre la pobreza rural y la urbana se había triplicado: 44 % versus 14 %. La desigualdad de ingresos en los hogares peruanos se mantuvo casi estática entre 2004 y 2015. Esta se refleja de manera más aguda en el acceso diferenciado de la población urbana y la rural a los servicios de educación, salud y financieros y a los activos productivos.
Developing nutrition-sensitive value chains in Indonesia
In Indonesia’s eastern Maluku and North Maluku provinces, malnutrition levels are high. Nutrition challenges include monotonous diets with inadequate levels of energy, micronutrients and protein. Studies commissioned by IFAD suggest that strengthened value chains for foods such as bananas, cassava, maize, spinach, sweet potatoes and fish could make business sense for smallholders and lay the foundations for a strong local food system that sustainably delivers nutritious foods for healthy diets.
Grant Results Sheet: Integrated crop– livestock conservation agriculture for sustainable intensification of cereal-based systems in Central and West Asia and North Africa
The goal was to improve the livelihoods of resource-poor farmers through the adoption of integrated crop–livestock conservation agriculture.
Agents of rural change: The IFAD story
Some of today’s biggest challenges are not new – poverty, hunger and inequality, in particular. But in addition, major threats and trends continue to emerge.
Global Forum on Remittances, Investment and Development 2017 – Official Report
Remittances constitute a critical lifeline for around 1 billion people around the world. These vital flows of private money, sent by over 200 million international migrant workers, help families raise their living standards and contribute to improved health, education and housing.
How to do note: Design of gender transformative smallholder agriculture adaptation programmes
This How to Do Note (HTDN) is intended to provide guidance on how to design smallholder agriculture adaptation programmes that consider the differential impacts of climate change on women, men and youth smallholder farmers. This includes recognizing that programme interventions – from design to staffing to capacity development of beneficiaries and local organizations – need to consider how gender will affect sustainability and impact. The experiences, social positions and differing access to resources of marginalized populations are fundamental considerations in the design, implementation, and monitoring and evaluation of gender transformative smallholder agriculture adaptation programmes.