Rawela Jan: interview transcript
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Rawela Jan: interview transcript22 décembre 2014
Rawela Jan lives in Akhoon Bandi village, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. She was 40 years old when she was interviewed on 16 November 2009 for the Rural Poverty Report 2011. The interview was recorded in the language of Hindko and carried out by a staff member from the Omar Asghar Khan Development Foundation. The interviewer had an existing relationship with the community but was not a professional researcher.
Introduction by interviewer: This interview was also conducted in Mr Saleem's house which is next door to Rawela Jan's. Rawela had some difficulty in recollecting all the details of her past. She often needed some time to recollect the sequence of events and their details. She also stammered a little.
Walaikum mussalam (greeting)
How are you?
Fine. Thank God.
My name is Meher and Maria came with me. We want to interview you.In the morning we had a meeting. Were you included in that? We have given an introduction there about our organization; you have no objection if we take your interview?
After this interview we have to take a photograph, can we take, if there is no objection?
Take it, no objection.
Introduce yourself, tell your name.
My name is Rawela Jan.
Are you married?
Tell me about your children.
One boy, one girl…
How long have you been married?
20… 22 years have passed.
Tell us about your daily routine, how you start the day.
The day… shall I tell you from morning till evening?
With the morning we get up and say prayers, after saying prayers we have to recite from the Holy Koran, after reciting the Koran then we give tea and bread to the children and they go to school. Then we clean the utensils of our house, wash clothes, iron them, then comes evening time, we cook food, and while doing all this prayer time comes. We say prayers, then eat dinner and then sleep.
How old are you approximately?
I am about 40 years old.
Tell me more about the children.
The elder son died while he was in 10th class and the other younger one is studying in 11th class and the daughter is studying in 7th class.
What happened to your elder son?
The elder son killed himself with a rope (hanged himself).
Both the brothers fought. One brother was saying: "I will take the vegetables". The other was saying he would. When taking the vegetables he… killed himself with a rope. He said: "You go and I will not go". Nobody was around – it was a Sunday and he was saying: "I will go, I am off today". The younger said: "I will go". When doing all this he killed himself.
Nobody was around?
Nobody was there. It was an orchard and the rope was hanging from the guava tree in the orchard.
The younger brother did not inform [the family at] home?
When the younger brother came I said to him: "You'd better not go there since he is fighting with you so let him go". Nobody was there at that time… Guava trees were there and he climbed up another tree and said: "You climb up the tree every day, and pick guava and take them away". He said: "I am not picking but killing myself"". He was a youngster and not wise enough… He informed the aros paros (neighbourhood) and when we reached there he was dead.1
What was the age of your son at that time?
Studying in 10th class, about… 20 years old… 20, which is normal up to 10th class. My mind cannot accept that this happened, ask me anything else and I will talk about it.
Tell us something about your childhood.
In my childhood I was the eldest among all my brothers and sisters. I was responsible for looking after all my sisters and brothers as they grew up. During this pall pos (nurturing) I grew up [myself], serving food to them, and putting household utensils in front of them… then making beds for them. Sending them to school and going along with them… I used to go to school with them. I studied up to 5th class and then I finished. My mother used to do the embroidery work at home, pillows and cushions… and a woman used to give this work to us. My mother used to do the embroidery work and gradually I started this work with my mother. We used to give the completed embroidery items to that woman.
What did she do with that?
She used to sell it onwards; she took it to Haripur and gave us our dues.
How much in one month?
At that time around 300 each month for both me and my mother.
Yes and then?
And Abu (father)… while we were doing all this, father was keeping livestock.
How many livestock?
Five buffaloes and their young, we used to collect buffalo's milk, and make lassi (curd), make butter, and we, my sisters and brothers, used to eat up the butter and whatever was left our mother used to sell it.
Where did you sell?
People used to buy from our home. When the young of our livestock grew up, we sold them, at the Eid ul-Azha (sacrifice day) times keeping them for some time… Any young animals, father used to sell them to pay for the household expenses. When I was six years old I went to school. Accha (ok) they used to teach and I used to read. I studied for five years, I used to quarrel with many and beat them and I also used to be beaten up by many. Complaints used to come almost daily and in the meantime I reached the 5th class. And after the 5th I stopped. My mind was not working: "Atta Jatta kuch nahen ha" (just come and go for nothing). My other sisters were more intelligent than me, they used to read and say to me: "We will explain at home, go with us we will explain." Then I said: "I will not study if I have to be punished daily, [they] beat me and yet I cannot understand anything." Then my sisters and brothers used to read and I used to be with them, and in the process of baking bread for them I became a youth, became a youth and got married and then they said, "Certificate? – at that time the 5th class certificate should have been issued." When I got married they were saying: "7th class certificate or 10th class." They were saying: "We do not issue certificates like this, we cannot issue extra [ones now]".
What do you mean about marriage and certificate? Why?
My husband was literate up to 10th class and he was saying, "She should also be literate." The teachers were saying: "The certificate will be only for the 5th class as she studied up to 5th class."
Were they asking for a 7th class certificate?
Yes they were saying 7th class certificate, and I would have made my work.
What happened then?
Then nothing, they became silent.
Then they said: "We do not need the certificate."
Ok. Did you get married in the village or elsewhere?
My marriage was in Parrian (name of a village)… you might have heard the name. Parrian is situated further down from Haripur. I came from Parrian, I married here, when I married we were poor, whatever was available with mother and father… all household items as well as jewellery – they gave me jewellery, it used to be ganee (necklace) in those days, "gallay ke ganee" (necklace). One ganee, one koka (a ring) and also a ring for my husband, and they gave me four bedsteads, and at that time a bedstead with black and red legs was woven with jute; and six, six chairs were also given. This is how I got married. They gave me 15, 15 sets of bedding. After I had been married here some time… after six months I got sick, I was sick and was diagnosed with tuberculosis. I caught tuberculosis from a small boil on my hand and with that I got very sick. They used to take me for the medicines at short intervals and were saying I was dying today or tomorrow. I used to always be sick.
What was that boil and how did it begin?
Here it was a small pebble, a small boil, and it grew big from a small boil and it increased. When the pain increased they used to pick me up and take me for the check-up and medicine.
Where did they take you for medicine?
They took me to Abbottabad. They used to put me on the bedstead and take me, at that time there were not many vehicles. [Now] vehicles also come to our village, Allah ka Shookar ha (thanks be to God), the road is constructed. At that time we were supposed to go on foot. They used to pick me up and take me, the doctors were not admitting me, saying they will not admit me, and just gave me medicines, and then they used to bring me back home. Just like this. Finally they admitted me, and after admission they said: "This case is beyond our control – take her here". Then they took me to Dheri Taxila, mother and father were also called and informed that I was sick. At that time telephones were rarely available - now telephones are available… mobile. Then my father came and he took me, mother also came. My in-laws were insisting not to let me go as I was sick. My husband was saying: "I will not give her." Then my father said to my father-in-law that I will take her for treatment. Then I went there – they did my treatment but I could not get well. Then they brought me back and here… for 14 to 15 years my treatment continued. One illness ended and another started. I used to have episodes of tuberculosis. Then I caught tuberculosis [again], then it was treated and then by the grace of God the disease finished. My home situation at that time was this, that we were poor, no land or other property was left… No, some land was there – I forgot – and my husband used to do farming and I was also helping him.
What farming did you used to do?
Farming… what we used to do was grow maize and wheat. We used to grow okra also, I used to go along to pick okra and my small girl child used to do the household work. When I came back from the fields, till then my daughter did all the household work as well as cook and serve me food. I picked okra and my husband used to take it to sell in Abbottabad. He himself cut the cabbage and my son went to school. We used to work like this and I personally worked with them.
What kind of work did you used to do?
I used to pick okra. Okra picking and he took them to sell.
He used to sell it where?
In Abbottabad market.
Tell me more about the land
The land is our own – 13 to 15 kanals (0.66 – 0.76 ha) panryala (irrigated)… also uttarh (rain-fed) around 12 to 13 kanals. There is no water available.
What do you mean by uttar (rain-fed)?
Uttar - the land that we get produce from and that gets water, and the piece which stands apart from irrigation we called it uttar (rain-fed).
Which does not get water?
Land which does not get water is uttarh (rain-fed). It grows only wheat and some other produce. Whereas all kinds of crops can be produced from the irrigated land – okra, cabbage, green chillies, tomato and onion we grow and produce from the irrigated place. But uttarh (rain-fed) land can produce wheat and maize only. And in panryala we grow ganhar (green fodder), cut it and feed it to livestock. My husband feeds grass to livestock, also brings it, and I do the household chores. When the crops are ready I also help him with harvesting crops etc. And when there is no work in the fields I stay and do work at home.
What do you mean by fasal boota (crop and plants)?
A crop like maize, he cuts it, and I peel it and bring it home. Challee (maize), isn't that what it is called? Peeling challee. When they work I used to take food for him, and take water along also, in a bottle. When he has finished eating I bring back the utensils. I cut tree branches and bring those home with me. Then I do the household chores. Then if he asks for anything, to come and work with him, like cutting maize and wheat, then I go back and help them with cutting wheat or maize.
Okay. You go yourself?
Yes I go myself.
OK tell me. You go and work, your husband and other members of the household also do farming. Tell me who does more work?
No he (husband) does more work. I come back home and do the household work. He does farming and I take food to him, then I come back and do handi roti (curry and bread), clean utensils, wash clothes, iron, and sweep and clean the house. Besides this if there is anybody sick or in any other trouble I also go to ask about them. If someone dies in the village I also go to watch the departing of the soul… I do like this and my husband does like that.
OK. Which vegetables do you grow in your fields?
Wheat, maize, garlic and arum, haldee (turmeric)… people do not grow turmeric nowadays. Growing turmeric requires a lot of spadework and then it has to be extracted, and after extracting and sifting it from the soil it also needs time and effort.
What do you mean?
The land needs to be dug up to pull out the plant... First it is broken up with a pickaxe and after digging the plant has to be removed: therefore, people have abandoned this work. Wheat, maize, okra, cabbage, arum, tomato, chilli, pumpkin, ghea toree and kalee toree (different kinds of pumpkin) are generally grown.
How are they grown? In which season is maize sowed?
Maize… wheat is being sown right now.
This month, in the month of November?
What do you mean by rarnay?
First we spread seeds followed by a tractor which mixes it up with the soil. The farmer spreads the seed through a jholee (a wallet) which is made of cloth. It's done like this. When the seed germinates from the land then we can sprinkle pesticide on it so that weeds will not grow with it, and people avoid collecting these weeds. The wheat grows clean as we put down pesticide and the wheat comes out clean.
You talked about nella (weeds). Tell us something more about this. What do you mean by this?
These weeds are like this; it grows from the land with the wheat and is fed to livestock. Livestock like buffaloes, cows and goats etc. People feed it to these livestock. The land is some distance from us, and we get to the fields too late and people have damaged the wheat crop. When the wheat plant grows, lots of unwanted weeds come up with the wheat: that is called nella.
You talked about your livestock, you have kept livestock etc. What have you kept?
One buffalo, one cow and a donkey. The cow has a calf as well and there is also a katta (buffalo's calf) with the buffalo.
What is the benefit of this livestock to you?
The benefit is this: we do not have to purchase milk with money. It is available at home. We also sell milk in the neighbourhood, this is the benefit we get. In the morning we milk and children from the surrounding houses come and sit there. When I finish milking, I give milk to the children. Some take paow (quarter of a kg) some take adda sair (half a kg) some take teen paow (3 quarters of a kg) according to their need.
OK. How much is the income in a month?
Nobody gives money on a monthly basis. Some give tukray (bread pieces), some give 1 kg, some do not give and some are poor. I think, never mind, God has given us this, but they also keep quiet. I shout at them: "Give me money, I have to bring feed, give me money I have to purchase and bring soree chokar (feed and fodder)". Some give and some don't. Monthly savings are like nothing.
The donkey you talked about, why is that kept?
It is kept to bring the grass from the fields on its back. Maize straws are also loaded onto it to bring them here. Now by the grace of God a flourmill has been installed in the village. Before it was away from the village and we used to grind flour outside and bring it back.
When was this machine installed?
The machine installation happened around six months ago.
What is the benefit of the machine?
It has multiple benefits. I clean the grain at home, tell the machine man: "Come and take our grain." He picks up the grain and brings the flour back to my home. The machine is just in front of the door to our house. Thanks be to God. We have a lot of comfort.
OK. The wheat and vegetables you grow in your fields, what do you do with that?
Wheat we use at home and that is not for sale and we eat it during the year.
Approximately how much do you get?
We get some 50 to 60 sacks of wheat. Until the coming year's crop we keep on eating this and it does not spoil.
How do you keep it?
We fill sacks and keep them closed. When it is needed we clean it, grind it in the flourmill and it does not spoil. Only sometimes the little ghun (weevil) starts eating it. We bring pesticide and put it on it. There are seed tablets – we hide them and put them in the wheat.
What sort of tablets?
These are small tablets meant for preserving wheat and are available from stores. They are available in Havellian, Haripur and Shah Maqsood.
Does the tablet entail any harm?
Yes. These are harmful. The harm is this - that the grain caught a disease; we washed the grain and dried it. That caught a disease.
The grain caught a disease?
No the people caught a disease. Once we put the pesticide in the seed but the ghun did not die, instead all the household members started vomiting. Vomiting endlessly. Then someone said: "You'd better wash and clean your utensils. Also wash the whole house". We cleaned up everything. Then we destroyed all the flour from home (dug the land and buried all the flour available at home) we were eating. Then we washed and ground flour for our use. Initially when we fell ill, people were saying somebody had given them something… but when we realized we had grain at our home then we understood nobody had given us anything. Maybe somebody had mixed something at the jandar (water-powered flourmill) but we realized that was also not the case. Then we understood we had put these tablets in the grain. We ground the grain without washing it and that was the cause of the disease. After that we washed the grain before eating. Thanks be to God. God had done nothing [too serious].
What are these types of tablets and what does one call them?
Ghun tablets we call them.
What is ghun?
Ghun catches the wheat grain and the grain becomes shallow and flour starts dropping from the grain.
What kind of tablet is this?
It is a soil coloured tablet. It is in a pack. One can buy six tablets for 100 rupees (1.2 US$)2. Then they tell you the method of using these tablets. The door of the room where these tablets are kept needs to be kept shut. We are not to leave any utensils in that room and not much air comes in. The store people tell us everything and we do accordingly.
What do you do with maize?
Maize we sell. If it is just three to four sacks then we keep it.
How much maize comes in one sack?
One mand to 1.5 mand (40 to 60 kg) in each sack.
OK, it amounts to 1 mand or 1.5 mand?
To whom do you sell it?
Here in the village. First the nomads who keep goats come. These nomads ask us to sell the maize to them. We sell them the maize and buy fertilizer for the wheat. That is why we sell the maize.
Do you keep maize for yourself?
Yes we keep maize for ourselves. We sell it to buy fertilizer for the wheat.
Tell us, the vegetables which you grow, what do you do with those?
The vegetables we grow, we sell them in Abbottabad market. With the vegetables we sell there we buy other groceries such as sugar and tea that we buy along with cooking oil. We bring this stuff for ourselves. Sometimes when we get nothing we just sell the vegetables [cheaply] and come back. We hardly cover the fare etc. When there are savings we bring groceries.
OK. If I ask you about the fields you have and the land, if that was not there what impact would it have on your life?
Then my husband would have gone out of the village for labour. Somedays he would get work and some days he would not. He would have earned a little money and with that we would have to run the household needs.
That time would have been more difficult than this time?
That time would have been difficult. We have our own land and thanks be to God we pass our time.
When you look at your childhood, was farming done with the same methods which are used nowadays?
Almost the same.
Not much difference between the two?
In your fields, which method do you use for farming?
The tractor is there, we call a tractor when we thresh it… reap the wheat and thresh it with the tractor.
From where do you bring the tractor?
In the village, whoever owns a tractor and we ask him, when we plough the land we ask the same tractor owner – we… we have gathered and threshed it on a machine and then ask the same tractor owner to fetch the produce/grain up to our home and…. that we put in big sacks and that he also puts on the trolley and brings up to our home. So this is how we work together. Aros paros (neighbourhood), we ask them to come for labour, collect wheat with us and they do - so first they reap for payment… we tell the labourers that we will pay a daily wage of up to 300 rupees. So we… If there is wheat then they come to reap it with us… and then again we take roti (literally, bread; by extension, a meal) to them. We give tea in the morning at 10am. And then we give roti in the afternoon. And then again we give tea, and then they leave in the afternoon. Until they reap the wheat, we give tea and roti three times a day, when the wheat reaping is completed, we ask them to gather it. Afterwards they gather it, so then it is in one place. Then we call the tractor person to come and do the threshing. So then he brings the thresher which is also called the crushing machine… and they then thresh the wheat. So we ask the tractor person to transport the grain to our house. He puts it on a trolley, and also takes the chaff. He also brings the chaff from the fields, and then whatever his wage is, he takes that. In that way, we pass our time.
What wage does he take from you?
He takes 700 rupees per hour as a wage. If it takes one hour, he takes 700 rupees. We pay him for as many hours as it takes.
About how many hours does it take?
The calculation is according to the number of sacks. It can take five hours, and sometimes it takes four hours, so then that's how it is done.
OK, tell me more about your crop, is there any profit?
There is no profit. It hardly covers its cost. And the profit is simply not there.
How is that?
We have to apply fertilizers etc. and that is how the work is started… like wheat has been sown now, in that... you know, maize seeds… we sell the maize and then apply fertilizer once and then a second time… and as I have said before… we apply pesticide… pesticide is very expensive… 500-600 rupees per bottle, and we have to apply three to four bottles. And then as I was telling you we also apply fertilizer to the rain-fed area, and also on the irrigated land. In that way, then… that… even the weeds grow along with the crops. So when a person tries to reap the wheat, the weed does not let one cut it. The weeds become as high as the blades of wheat. So then there is no saving from it. And then the children… the daughter does not go to school… the son studies… so we support his education.
Why doesn't your daughter go to school?
The daughter… just does not go to school. She studied up to 9th class and then we took her out of school. So I said… The road… we could not afford the fares of vehicles and so every day in winter she walked there through the water… so it is better that she stops.
Why does she walk through the water?
On the way, there is a stream that flows. She went through the stream. Winter… now the bridge has been constructed… at that time there was no bridge etc. and there was no one who could accompany her.
Where did she go?
Haripur. There was a school there.
Did she want to study?
She does study on her own… so we stopped it. My son goes to school.
What do you think, is there any benefit from your children's education?
Yes. Why should there not be benefit? God gives them awareness. They talk about all kinds of things. When their parents are illiterate, they show their parents… what is written this way and what is written that way. This work you are doing right and that work you are doing wrong… the way to live… Those parents that are illiterate, the children educate them.
If your son is studying and your daughter does not, do you see any difference between them?
I see a difference. They say that if the daughter was equal, and studying, her life would also be better in the future… there would be benefits. If the daughter is educated then God forbid if she faces any hardship; so if she is educated then she can give tuitions and make ends meet if she is skilled - and some spend their time this way. She can get a job in a school or take pupils for tuition at home. So, for daughters the benefits are even more than for sons. There is a desire… like that for sons and daughters. The son that is studying… he is in the 11th class… he says he does not want to study… we tell him to study and say that we will give your fees and your admission. He says I want to work, I don't want to study. We say: you study, we will support your education. He is studying… he has good marks (grades).
Please tell me, is there any organization in your village for men or women?
None. We don't have any.
Should there be one or not?
Yes, there should be.
In an organization people come together and it helps if there is a marriage or if someone dies.
Like when two brothers come together, they will say: "Let's give them something, cover their costs for the funeral, etc." Organizations should be there. Or for the construction of a pathway or if something else happens.
Please tell me, is there any outside NGO or any other institution working in your village at present?
In our village only the street pavement has been done in another area, nothing else. On our side of the village the streets have not been paved.
Who did this work?
I don't know.
Please tell me, what do you think is the difference between the time of your childhood and the present time?
There is a lot of difference. Those were good times, people had good times. At the time, there were no good or bad thoughts. Now many thoughts come to me.
What do you mean, please tell me more?
The past were good times. Mothers, fathers, brothers and sisters earned and fed us. Now we have to fend for ourselves and also make up our own minds – this is what it is. These are tough times – in the past there were good times.
Ok, now is this time of your children more difficult than when you were children?
Our times were tough. That is not the case for our children – children are happy now. We give ourselves to our children.
How was your time difficult?
It is difficult for us as we think about things… we think what will we do with our children… how will we educate them… will we manage our household… we also have to arrange the marriages of our children. This is what it is.
Please tell me, what do you do if someone falls ill in your family?
If someone falls ill, we have to ask for money from some brother. "Can you give? Today my son, daughter and husband are ill." They lend us money. In that way, we incur debt to buy medicines. We ask the driver of a vehicle to take us. We ask many times, to please also pay for our fare – and sometimes we ask them for the fare and also for medicines. In this way, we ask from our brothers and sisters and make do.
You mentioned that you had a boil on your hand, and you also had TB – how is your condition now?
Oh, that – I am OK. But I get dizzy spells for which I get medicines. I have faced many hardships. But by the grace of God, I am better now.
Where do you go for treatment?
I used to travel to Abbottabad. Even now I go to Abbottabad. In the past there was no hospital for TB, now everywhere there is a hospital for TB. At that time, I only went to Abbottabad and no other place.
OK, please tell me if there is any change in your life? You mentioned your son who killed himself.
Yes I mentioned him. Whenever I think about it again, then my mind explodes. In that way, my mind… I don't know… I want to say one thing but say something different. I just don't know – I don't know what to do and what not to do. At times, my husband and I faint. We feel suffocated. Our throats feel choked. And it is difficult to breathe. When I am conscious [of thinking about my son], I recite Kalima (Koranic verse) and remember God, and say: "God it was your decision, so you took it. I cannot force you, God."
Have you told the doctor about your condition?
The doctors say I should stop thinking. But thoughts come to me – many thoughts come to me, I have thoughts all the time. I say, children are young and have gone on to jobs and have responsibilities. My fate, if my child was alive, then even he would have been fine now.
OK, tell me: what is your view about your own and your children's future?
Well that time is not there any more.
Please tell me about the future, what do you think may happen?
I have expectations that may God make them good, put them on the right path – girl and boy. And that may God grant them education. So the girl reads the Koran and prays. And so she also belongs to God. She says: "God please guide me and God put me on the righteous path". So we also pray the same thing: "God please make our children pious, our daughter too".
OK, what do you think? How can your present situation improve – is there any scope for improvement?
God will make things better. Every person tries for his or her time to be well spent. In that way, when my son completes his education then he too will start working. So by the grace of God – our lives will improve. I have faith in God; God will improve things.
What do you think about your sons or your daughters? If you are largely involved in farming as are other members of your household, what do you think, will your children take a job somewhere or will they do farming too?
No. We don't say to our son that he should take a job after completing his education. He also says,: "I want to study", and he is applying for science. "And if I get good marks"; he says that he will study and work at the same time. And we say he should study and not work. "After you complete your studies, then you may certainly work. The time is short." He says he wants to join the army, join the police. We say: "Don't join them. First study, and then later you can join them."
You mentioned that you will get them to take jobs, and not involve them in farming – please tell me why is that?
About farming it is like this: first the father studied up to 10th class and began farming. He says that when the son completes his studies then he should not do farming. The son should do something else. There is nothing gained from farming, we don't get anything. There are no savings. Whatever we earn is spent on meeting household expenses. In this way, it is better for the son, he says. When he returns from outside, and if he gets a job, then he will work here.
OK, thank you very much. You gave us so much time.
1/ This is a clearer version of this incident provided by the partner. Rawela Jan's family used to grow and sell vegetables. It was a Sunday and both her sons were at home (school was closed because it was Sunday). In the morning they both went to the fields to collect and sell the vegetables in the market. While taking the vegetable to the market the sons started quarrelling with each other as both wanted to take the vegetables to the market. The elder was arguing that he should take the vegetable to the market while the younger was insisting that he should. The argument between them went for a while. Finally the younger son said: "I am going home to complain to mother about your behaviour." In the meantime the elder son started climbing up the guava tree… The younger said to the elder: "You always damage the guava fruit. I will complain to mother about this as well." The elder said: "Today I am not picking or damaging the guava fruit but killing myself." The younger ignored him, went back home and informed his mother. She said:"Forget about it. And you'd better stay at home and let him deal with the vegetables."
Back in the fields the elders son was very angry and afraid as well that the vegetable were still there, and that his brother had also gone back to complain to their mother and she would beat him. He was on the tree with the rope and in the meantime the son of the landowner came there. He said to him: "Why are you are on the guava tree?" He said: "Do not worry, I am not picking your guavas but killing myself." The landowner's son rushed to the nearby house and informed them about the intention of Rawela's son…but when they reached there he was dead and his body was hanging from the tree and they informed Rawela of the incident.
2/ Average exchange rate (83.58 rupees = 1 US$), November 2009, Interbank rate, source: www.oanda.com