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Research Series Issue 16 - Getting the most out of impact evaluation for learning, reporting and influence

julio 2017
This paper describes the Participatory Impact Assessment and Learning Approach (PIALA) which was developed and piloted by IFAD. The approach aims to produce rigorous qualitative and quantitative evidence that can be used not only to identify and assess the impacts of development projects, but also to promote learning and improved understanding of the associated processes and pathways of socio-economic change. Illustrated with cases from Viet Nam and Ghana, the paper assesses the value of the approach for collaborative learning and reporting for IFAD’s country programming and global policy engagement, as well as for the wider development community.

Developing nutrition-sensitive value chains in Indonesia

febrero 2018
In Indonesia’s eastern Maluku and North Maluku provinces, malnutrition levels are high. Nutrition challenges include monotonous diets with inadequate levels of energy, micronutrients and protein. Studies commissioned by IFAD suggest that strengthened value chains for foods such as bananas, cassava, maize, spinach, sweet potatoes and fish could make business sense for smallholders and lay the foundations for a strong local food system that sustainably delivers nutritious foods for healthy diets.

Research Series Issue 21 - Does relative deprivation induce migration? Evidence from sub-Saharan Africa

marzo 2018
This paper challenges the traditional view that portrays income maximization as the main driver of migration and tests whether relative deprivation and social inequality lead to migration in sub-Saharan Africa. Examining data from the Living Standards Measurements Study – Integrated Surveys in Agriculture (LSMS-ISA) from Tanzania, Ethiopia, Malawi, Nigeria and Uganda, the paper finds that a household’s migration decision is based not only on its well-being status, but also on the position of the household relative to the wealth distribution in the local community. Results indicate that relative deprivation of wealth was positively associated with migration, implying a need to renew the discussion of relative deprivation and social inequality as a cause of migration in sub-Saharan Africa.

Research Series Issue 6 - Why food and nutrition security matters for inclusive structural and rural transformation

septiembre 2016
This paper challenges current thinking on the connection between rural transformation and food security & nutrition. It advocates that improving rural and structural transformation has a positive cyclical effect upon communities by improving food availability, access, supplies and utilization which in turn improves the health and education of communities. Using evidence from across the developing world, the paper creates a policy agenda to maximise potential for smallholder farming to transform local economies.

Research Series Issue 11 - Food safety, trade, standards and the integration of smallholders into value chains

marzo 2017
This paper analyses how food safety challenges and requirements affect smallholder farmers' access to markets. High food safety standards in destination countries force governments of developing countries to make strategic choices about establishing domestic standards and upgrading the infrastructure and knowledge base of smallholder farmers. The paper suggests mechanisms that can be used to respond to these challenges, to enable smallholder inclusion in different markets.

Research Series Issue 7 - Measuring IFAD's Impact

diciembre 2016
This paper examines the impact of IFAD-supported projects so as to learn lessons for future projects. It analyses the different methods used by IFAD to measure a project's impact, finds that IFAD is improving the well-being of rural people, and recommends that impact assessments be built into future projects from their inception.

Research Series Issue 10 - Inclusive finance and inclusive rural transformation

enero 2017
This paper provides an overview of concepts, issues and research on the relationship between financial inclusion and inclusive rural transformation. It demonstrates how changing demand for financial services, innovations in rural finance, and different investment strategies affect the interplay of supply and demand.

Research Series Issue 9 - Social protection and inclusive rural transformation

enero 2017
This paper analyses how different types of social protection interventions affect rural livelihoods. It examines how these interventions can help rural transformation by increasing productivity and asks how they can influence inclusiveness. Using country-level evidence, it suggests that the effectiveness of social protection depends upon specific contexts and combinations of interventions, and asks what this means for building policy.

Smart ICT for Weather and Water Information and Advice to Smallholders in Africa

marzo 2015
The primary objective of the project was to promote innovative approaches and ICT-based technologies for timely transfer of weather, water-and crop related information and advice to relevant end users in Africa for informed decision-making and enhanced negotiation capacity with water and farm-related service providers.

Rural Poverty Report 2011

noviembre 2010
“Hoy en día el problema es que no importa lo duro que trabajes, nunca es suficiente para alimentar a la familia…”. “Lleva sin llover aproximadamente un año, quizás más. Por eso la gente sufre…”. “Sin estudios una persona no puede hacer nada…”. “Los hombres se han ido a trabajar fuera del pueblo. La principal mano de obra aquí son las mujeres…”. Lo anterior son testimonios de primera mano de algunos de los hombres, mujeres y jóvenes que fueron entrevistados para este informe. Sus historias nos ofrecen una percepción profunda de lo que es vivir la realidad en constante cambio de la pobreza rural en nuestro tiempo. Si queremos comprender esa realidad, es fundamental escuchar sus experiencias y aprender de ellas. Y es el primer paso en la búsqueda de soluciones adecuadas y eficaces para conseguir que las zonas rurales pasen de estar estancadas a ser lugares donde los jóvenes de hoy puedan encontrar oportunidades de trabajo que les permitan salir de la pobreza, y donde deseen vivir y criar a sus propios hijos. Necesitamos comprender claramente qué rostro tiene la pobreza hoy en día, disponer de una cesta de soluciones prácticas a los múltiples retos a los que nos enfrentamos y contar con un enfoque coherente para hacer frente a los desafíos que se puedan ir presentando en el futuro. En este informe se presentan estos tres aspectos. La publicación del FIDA Informe sobre la pobreza rural 2011 – Nuevas realidades, nuevos desafíos: nuevas oportunidades para la generación del mañana, es un estudio exhaustivo de la pobreza rural. Las conclusiones del informe se derivan de la colaboración entre docenas de expertos en la esfera de la reducción de la pobreza, tanto dentro como fuera del FIDA, algunos de ellos también procedentes de la propia población rural pobre.

Research Series Issue 3 - Fostering inclusive outcomes in African agriculture: improving agricultural productivity and expanding agribusiness opportunities

abril 2016
This paper looks at the role of agriculture in fostering inclusive and sustainable development in Sub-Saharan Africa. It discusses how improving agricultural productivity, smallholder access to markets and expanding agribusiness opportunities can accelerate transformation, investment and industrialization. The paper presents key investment and policy elements to be considered and points to the centrality of smallholders for the rural transformation process to be inclusive.

Research Series Issue 2 - Migration and Transformative Pathways

marzo 2016
This paper analyses the role of migration in promoting rural livelihoods and discusses how migration interacts with transformative economic processes. Focusing on migration out of rural areas, it examines the impacts of migration on rural livelihoods and challenges the perspective that sees rural outmigration as a failure of rural development.

An Innovative, Scalable, Pro-poor Home Cooking-based Charcoal Production Value Chain For Women

septiembre 2015
With a small grant, INBAR has innovated Household Charcoal (HHC) production from cooking with firewood into a new livelihood opportunity and sustainable value chain for the economic empowerment of poor rural women. Women from poor rural households in Ethiopia, India and Tanzania were trained to put out fires when they had finished cooking to prevent smouldering, collect household charcoal through the clusters and process it into briquettes. INBAR has also developed the NCPP Social Enterprise Model which is an Innovative & Inclusive Institutional system to strengthen the rural development ecosystem and enable safe investment opportunities for rural women.

Enabling rural transformation and grassroots institutional building for sustainable land management and increased incomes and food security

noviembre 2015
The enabling rural transformation and grassroots institutional building for sustainable land management and increased incomes and food security, referred to as the Strengthening Rural Institutions (SRI) project was undertaken by the World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF) Eastern and Southern Africa Region since 2011.

Research Series Issue 1 - Agricultural and rural development reconsidered

enero 2016
This paper is a guide to current debates about agricultural development. It analyses the changes in development approaches and thinking in recent decades and explores today's critical issues in agricultural and rural development policy. With the main focus on Africa, the paper also includes insights from Asia and Latin America.

Research Series Issue 4 - The effects of smallholder agricultural involvement on household food consumption and dietary diversity: Evidence from Malawi

mayo 2016
This paper investigates how household agricultural involvement affects food consumption and dietary diversity in rural Malawi. It analyses the relationship between on-farm income shares and the caloric consumption levels and shares across food groups. It finds that while food consumption and dietary diversity increase with agricultural involvement, the quality of diets does not improve. It highlights the importance of income diversification to dietary diversity and the need for investments in nutrition-sensitive agricultural value chains, nutrition education and crop diversification programmes.

Changing lives through IFAD water investments: a gender perspective

diciembre 2015
The following study was designed by IFAD in order to contribute to the knowledge about the relationship between gender, water investment and time saving. It is also intended to contribute to gender mainstreaming in IFAD’s water projects. The focus of the study is to see how much time women and men gain when they have improved access to sources of water and to establish what individuals, particularly women, do with the time they save by not having to walk long distances in search of water. The study further aims to discover to what extent the projects/investments contribute to reducing drudgery and to achieving equitable workloads between men and women. The survey targeted ongoing projects from the five regions in which IFAD operates that were either in their second phase or a mature stage of operation. In each project, one community was covered and 24 households were targeted. The survey successfully covered seven communities and 140 households and was mainly conducted through project officers facilitated by country programme managers or country programme officers.

Research Series Issue 14 - Disbursement performance of the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD)

junio 2017
This paper investigates the trends and the influencing factors of IFAD’s project disbursement performance over the past 20 years. Based on data from 577 projects in 111 countries, the study finds that disbursement of funds are often delayed and time-consuming. Using econometric analysis, the study assesses the internal and external factors affecting the amount and timeliness of disbursements, and provides important lessons on how international financial institutions such as IFAD can better monitor and manage this important aspect of their development effectiveness.

Research Series Issue 12 - An evidence-based assessment of IFAD’s end-of-project reporting

mayo 2017
Project Completion Reports (PCRs) are a critical tool for development organizations, both for accountability purposes, and as a means of learning from project experience to inform the design of future operations. This paper analyses a sample of PCRs from IFAD to assess the extent to which evidence is used to determine a project's effectiveness in bringing about development. The report finds that most claims on results are not supported by evidence, and discusses implications for the objective measurement of development effectiveness.

Research Series Issue 13 - Graduation models for rural financial inclusion

mayo 2017
Graduation out of chronic poverty has recently been receiving considerable attention by the global development community for its potential synergies with social protection, microfinance and livelihoods development approaches to poverty reduction. This paper examines the evidence regarding the effectiveness of graduation strategies in reducing extreme poverty, with a focus on rural households, and proposes a new analytical framework to support future work on graduation as a learning and adaptation process in development practice.