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Climate adaptation and mitigation measures for nutrition co-benefits in IFAD investments in Ghana

يونيو 2021
This report describes the findings of the country study carried out for the design of IFAD project on Livelihood and Productivity Enhancement of Smallholder Farmers (PROSPER) in Ghana.

Climate adaptation and mitigation measures for nutrition co-benefits in IFAD investments in Lesotho

يونيو 2021
This report describes the findings of the country study carried out for the design of IFAD project on Restoration of Landscapes and Livelihoods (ROLL P) in Lesotho.

Climate adaptation and mitigation measures for nutrition co-benefits in IFAD investments in Zimbabwe

يونيو 2021
This report describes the findings of the country study carried out for the design of IFAD Smallholder Agriculture Cluster Project (SACP) in Zimbabwe.

Food-system interventions with climate change and nutrition co-benefits: a literature review

يونيو 2021
This literature review report explores the conceptual linkages between climate change and nutrition using a food system approach.

Research Series Issue 65: Impacts of agricultural value chain development in a mountainous region: Evidence from Nepal

مايو 2021
This analysis investigates the potential mechanism and the practical significance of the impacts of agricultural value chain development in a geographically challenging rural area of a developing country.

Managing agricultural risk through remittances: the case of Senegal

ديسمبر 2020
This feasibility study explains the role of remittances in agricultural risk management.

Research Series Issue 64: How the adoption of drought-tolerant rice varieties impacts households in a non-drought year: Evidence from Nepal

ديسمبر 2020
Stress-tolerant rice varieties (STRVs) are bred to be high yielding and tolerant to climate shocks such as drought.

Innovation Catalogue

نوفمبر 2020
The Innovation Catalogue showcases a set of 23 solutions to challenges faced by small-scale producers in East and Southern Africa.

Digital gender inequality in Latin America and the Caribbean

أكتوبر 2020
The technological revolution has made it possible for digital connectivity to reach rural areas.

Impact Assessment: Strengthening Local Development in the Highlands and High Rainforest Areas Project (PSSA)

سبتمبر 2020
PSSA aimed to unlock rural development and poverty reduction in Peru by supporting the design and implementation of business plans created by Producer Associations, targeting two of the country’s poorest regions.

Research Series Issue 63: The adoption of improved agricultural technologies - A meta-analysis for Africa

أغسطس 2020
In this paper, particular attention is given to the identification and promotion of productivity and resilience enhancing agricultural practices.

The State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World 2020

يوليو 2020
Transforming food systems for affordable healthy diets.

العدد 62 من سلسلة البحوث: الآثار الجانبية لمجموعات منتجي البذور على المزارعين غير الأعضاء في مجتمعات التلال المتوسطة في نيبال

يونيو 2020
مزارعو الأرز في منطقة التلال النيبالية معرضون للجفاف ، الأمر الذي يمكن أن يقلل بشكل كبير من الغلات. يمكن أن تخفف أصناف الأرز التي تتحمل الإجهاد من هذا الضعف، كما يمكن أن يكون لها معدل استبدال مرتفع للبذور واستخدام أفضل ممارسات الإدارة في زراعة الأرز.

Impact Assessment: Gente de Valor – Rural Communities Development Project in the Poorest Areas of the State of Bahia

مايو 2020
The Rural Communities Development in the Poorest Areas of the State of Bahia (Project Gente de Valor) was designed to strengthen the capacity of rural communities to thrive in the drought-prone environment of Brazil's north-east region through improved access to water, increased productive capacity, and empowerment of participating communities.

Regional Overview of Food Security and Nutrition in the Near East and North Africa 2019

مايو 2020
This report explores food systems in the Arab States and the policies that support them.

Research Series Issue 61: The narrative on rural youth and economic opportunities in Africa: facts, myths and gaps

ديسمبر 2019
This paper reviews the narrative on rural youth and economic opportunities in Africa, using a set of policy documents from various African countries and regional and international organizations.

Research Series Issue 60: Investing in rural youth in the Near East, North Africa, Europe and Central Asia

ديسمبر 2019
This study reviews the opportunities and challenges facing rural youth in the Near East, North Africa, Europe and Central Asia region.

Research Series Issue 59: The rural youth situation in Latin America and the Caribbean

ديسمبر 2019
This study offers a general picture of the situation of rural youth in Latin America and the Caribbean.

Research Series Issue 58: Investing in rural youth in the Asia and the Pacific region

ديسمبر 2019
This study characterizes the structural and rural transformation of the Asia and the Pacific region.

Research Series Issue 57: Unlocking the potential of rural youth: the role of policies and institutions

ديسمبر 2019
This study presents a framework to analyse the political economy of rural youth policy and institutions’ opportunity space with a quadrant that measures the extent to which rural youth are a priority in policies and institutions versus the extent that governments have to effectively implement rural youth policies.

Research Series Issue 56: The impact of migrants’ remittances and investment on rural youth

ديسمبر 2019
This study analyses how migrants positively contribute to the sustainable economic development of rural youth in their countries of origin.

Research Series Issue 55: Rural youth: determinants of migration throughout the world

ديسمبر 2019
This study takes a unique look at the determinants of youth migration across seven different countries using recently collected data.

Research Series Issue 54: Rural youth in the context of fragility and conflict

ديسمبر 2019
While conflicts are often defined as “development in reverse”, there is a general lack of research focusing specifically on young people living in rural areas.

Research Series Issue 53: Youth access to land, migration and employment opportunities: evidence from sub-Saharan Africa

ديسمبر 2019
This study examines the intersections between youth access to land, migration decisions and employment opportunities in various African countries.

Research Series Issue 52: Information and communication technologies and rural youth

ديسمبر 2019
This analysis reviews existing research on the impact of digital initiatives on youth in the education, agriculture, financial and employment sectors.

Research Series Issue 51: Inclusive finance and rural youth

ديسمبر 2019
This study analyses inclusive finance and rural youth through cutting-age research with new insights and approaches that have emerged over the years in the field.

Research Series Issue 50: Rural transformation and the double burden of malnutrition among rural youth in developing countries

ديسمبر 2019
In this study, we show that rural transformation processes are associated with improvements in rural youth nutrition – malnutrition and underweight – in nearly all regions, although the pace of change varies considerably across countries.

Research Series Issue 49: Climate and jobs for rural young people

ديسمبر 2019
Climate change matters for all young people, especially for those whose livelihoods depend on agriculture. This study shows that adaptation to climate change is feasible and options increase as new technologies and management approaches come on-stream.

Research Series Issue 48: Rural youth, today and tomorrow

ديسمبر 2019
Research on rural youth aspirations suggests that many young people are not averse to agriculture as such, but to agriculture’s current neglected condition

Research Series Issue 47: Landscapes of rural youth opportunity

ديسمبر 2019
This study is motivated by the consistent portrayal of agriculture and the broader rural economy in Africa as domains of opportunity for rural youth.

Research Series Issue 46: Economic participation of rural youth: what matters?

ديسمبر 2019
A key lesson is that lack of technical skills does not seem to be the biggest obstacle youth face in entering the labour force. Evidence on agricultural extension programmes suggests that peer-to-peer learning works best.

Research Series Issue 45: Rural youth inclusion, empowerment and participation

ديسمبر 2019
This exploratory study focuses on participation in decision-making processes and how rural youth could benefit from its findings in development projects and initiatives.

Research Series Issue 44: Gender, rural youth and structural transformation: evidence to inform innovative youth programming

ديسمبر 2019
This study analyses sex-disaggregated data from various countries to characterize rural youths’ transition to adulthood by gender.

Research Series Issue 43: Youth agrifood system employment in developing countries: a gender-differentiated spatial approach

ديسمبر 2019
Little is known about the economic activities of rural youth. This study provides empirical evidence on this gap in literature.

Research Series Issue 42: What drives rural youth welfare? The role of spatial, economic, and household factors

ديسمبر 2019
This study uses the concept of the Rural Opportunity Space from economic geography literature to shed light on these questions.

Research Series Issue 41: The demography of rural youth in developing countries

ديسمبر 2019
Building on United Nations data, this study analyses how past growth of the youth population was dramatic in Asia and the Pacific, while projections suggest a sharp rise in the youth population of sub-Saharan Africa until 2050.

IFAD10 Impact Assessment: An Overview

ديسمبر 2019
To hold itself accountable on progress made in achieving this goal and these three strategic objectives, IFAD has adopted a unique approach to reporting impact at the corporate level, building on rigorous project-level evaluations. This report provides the results of these efforts to assess the corporate impact of IFAD investments for the Tenth Replenishment of IFAD’s Resources (IFAD10) period of 2016-2018.

Research Series Issue 40: Local-economy impacts of cash crop promotion

أكتوبر 2019
This is the first study to quantify the general equilibrium impacts of introducing a new cash crop into a poor isolated economy, including impacts on environmentally sensitive fishing activities.

Research Series Issue 39: Smallholder farming, growth linkages, structural transformation and poverty reduction

سبتمبر 2019
There are different views around the future of smallholder agriculture and its potential to contribute to the needed transformations of agriculture and rural economies.

Impact assessment: The Coastal Community Development (CCDP)

أغسطس 2019
The Coastal Community Development Project (CCDP), implemented between 2013 and 2017, was designed to reduce poverty and achieve sustainable economic growth in 12 coastal districts of Indonesia.

The State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World 2019

يوليو 2019
This year’s report presents evidence that the absolute number of people who suffer from hunger continues to slowly increase. The report also highlights that food insecurity is more than just hunger.

Research Series Issue 38: Meta-evidence review on the impacts of investments in agricultural and rural development on Sustainable Development Goals 1 and 2

يونيو 2019
Agriculture and rural development research will play a critical role in meeting the ambitious targets under SDGs 1 and 2.

Soy papa no papá: Historias de cambios destacables y resultados del proyecto FIDA-CIP Andes

يونيو 2019
La historia de Gaby Quispe es la historia de lo que buscaba el proyecto FIDA-CIP-Andes. Su historia de cambio fue calificada entre sus pares de la organización de productores y por los socios y aliados del proyecto como la que mejor representa lo que buscaba la intervención.

Research Series Issue 37: Determinants of cofinancing in IFAD-funded projects - A call to rethink development interventions

مايو 2019
This study is an analysis of what drives cofinancing in IFAD-supported programmes/projects, covering 20 years of data from 559 projects in 109 countries.

Impact assessment: PAPAFPA and PAPAC

أبريل 2019
The Participatory Smallholder Agriculture and Artisanal Fisheries Development Programme (PAPAFPA) and the Smallholder Commercial Agriculture Project (PAPAC) are complementary projects designed to improve the livelihoods of smallholders in Sao Tomé and Príncipe. PAPAFPA, which has now closed, created farmers’ cooperatives to improve the development of organic cacao, coffee, and pepper value chains through increased commercialization in domestic and niche export markets.

Research Series Issue 36: Who works in agriculture?

أبريل 2019
This analysis examines the dynamics of youth employment in agriculture and the agri-food system in Tanzania and Malawi.

Impact assessment: Coastal Climate Resilient Infrastructure Project (CCRIP)

أبريل 2019
Farmers in southwestern Bangladesh, an area prone to natural disasters, are sometimes unable to reach community markets in the monsoon season.

Impact assessment: Plan VIDA-PEEP to Eradicate Extreme Poverty – Phase I

مارس 2019
From 2011 to 2016, the Plan VIDA project in Bolivia was implemented to address extreme poverty in rural areas by increasing the incomes and assets of rural people in the departments of Potosí and Cochabamba of the Plurinational State of Bolivia

Research Series Issue 35: Climate change mitigation potential of agricultural practices supported by IFAD investments An ex ante analysis

مارس 2019
This study estimates the mitigation potential of agricultural practices supported by IFAD’s current investments in order to provide guidance for the design of future investments.

Research Series Issue 34: Farm size and productivity - Lessons from recent literature

يناير 2019
This paper considers the relationship between farm size and productivity patterns across countries and within countries.

سلسلة نتائج الصندوق IFAD الإصدار الثالث

ديسمبر 2018
يقدم هذا الإصدار ويحلّل التجارب من البرامج والمشاريع التالية التي يمولها الصندوق:

Impact assessment: Agricultural Sector Development Programme–Livestock (ASDP-L) and Agriculture Service Support Programme (ASSP)

ديسمبر 2018
Despite decades of research and development of technologies and innovations which improve farming practices and productivity, small farmers in Tanzania continue to use technologies and practices which do not favour high yields and economic returns.

سلسلة الأبحاث الإصدار الثالث والثلاثين 33-تأثير تبنّي الأنواع التي طورتها الجماعة الاستشارية للبحوث الزراعية الدولية على نتائج الفقر والرفاهية: عرض منهجي

ديسمبر 2018
تبحث هذه الورقة تأثير البحوث الزراعية على الفقر والرفاهية من خلال إجراء عرض منهجي لتقييمات التأثيرات التجريبية وشبه التجريبية للأنواع المُطوّرَة التي نشرها الجماعة الاستشارية للبحوث الزراعية الدولية بين عامي 2007 و2015

Impact assessment: Irrigated Rice Production Enhancement Project

ديسمبر 2018
The Irrigated Rice Production Enhancement Project (IRPEP) was implemented between 2010 and 2015 to improve the rice productivity and livelihoods of smallholder farmers who cultivate on Communal Irrigation Schemes in three regions (Western Visayas, Central Visayas and Northern Mindanao) of the Philippines.

Impact assessment: Rural Development Support Programme in Guéra

ديسمبر 2018
The Rural Development Support Programme in Guéra (PADER-G) was implemented to improve the food security and livelihoods of farmers living in remote areas of Guéra, a drought-prone and conflict-ridden region of Chad.

Impact assessment: Guangxi Integrated Agricultural Development Project

ديسمبر 2018
The Guangxi Integrated Agricultural Development Project (GIADP) was implemented in 623 Administrative Villages in the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region of China to increase income of smallholder farmers by developing community infrastructures

Impact assessment: High-Value Agriculture Project in Hill and Mountain Areas

ديسمبر 2018
The High-Value Agriculture Project in Hill and Mountain Areas (HVAP) integrated farmers living in the remote hill and mountain areas of Mid-Western Nepal into the local economy of goats and high-valued crops such as apples and Sichuan pepper (timur).

Impact assessment: Project for Rural Income through Exports in Rwanda

ديسمبر 2018
The Project for Rural Income through Exports in Rwanda, known by its acronym PRICE, aims to increase returns to farmers through the development of export-driven value chains for coffee, tea, sericulture and horticulture.

Impact Assessment: Livestock and Pasture Development Project

ديسمبر 2018
In Khatlon Oblast, the poorest region of Tajikistan, decades of overgrazing has degraded pastoral land leading to low milk and meat production, food insecurity and malnutrition in rural areas.

Impact Assessment: Community-based Forestry Development Project in Southern States (DECOFOS)

ديسمبر 2018
Deforestation and unsustainable management practices have had a significant impact on the livelihoods of poor rural communities in the forest areas of Campeche, Chiapas and Oaxaca states in Mexico.

Impact assessment: Agricultural Value Chains Support Project (PAFA)

ديسمبر 2018
The Agricultural Value Chains Support Project (PAFA) aimed to improve the livelihoods of smallholder farmers in Senegal’s Groundnut Basin.

Impact assessment: Participatory Small-Scale Irrigation Development Programme

ديسمبر 2018
Rural people in the Ethiopian highlands depend mainly on rain-fed subsistence farming for their livelihoods.

سلسلة البحوث رقم 32- وضع تصنيفات لنُظم الزراعة على نطاق البلد: تحليل ضمانات دخل أصحاب الحيازات الصغيرة وأمنهم الغذائي في إثيوبيا

نوفمبر 2018
يهدف هذا البحث إلى بلورة فهم أفضل للسياق الذي تعمل فيه مزارع أصحاب الحيازات الصغيرة.

Collection and analysis of bilateral or tripartite work collaboration in Latin America and the Caribbean, 2012-2017

نوفمبر 2018
FAO, IFAD and WFP have developed joint actions in the Latin American and Caribbean region with the common goal of eradicating hunger and malnutrition and promoting sustainable agriculture and rural development.

Research Series Issue 31 - Impact of modern irrigation on household production and welfare outcomes

أكتوبر 2018
Investments in irrigation systems have been shown to substantially improve farmers’ productivity, and thus alleviate poverty. This study provides an example of such an investment: the Participatory Small-Scale Irrigation Development Programme.

Research Series Issue 30 - Nutrition-sensitive value chains from a smallholder perspective: A framework for project design

أكتوبر 2018
This paper addresses an important gap regarding the systematic knowledge and evidence on how value chains can contribute to nutrition, while remaining financially viable and inclusive of smallholder farmers.

Research Series Issue 29 - Empowering through collective action

أكتوبر 2018
This paper explores the conditions for collective action to generate inclusion when agriculture transforms.

حالة الأمن الغذائي والتغذية في العالم لعام 2018

سبتمبر 2018
تؤكد الأدلة الجديدة في تقرير حالة الأمن الغذائي والتغذية في العالم 2018 ارتفاع معدل الجوع في العالم: فقد تزايد عدد الأشخاص الذين يعانون من الجوع على مدى السنوات الثلاث الماضية، حيث عاد إلى مستويات منذ ما يقرب من عقد من الزمان. تتجلى الأشكال المتعددة لسوء التغذية في العديد من البلدان: فبدانة البالغين تنمو حتى مع استمرار أشكال نقص التغذية.
اللغات الإضافية: Arabic, English, Spanish, French, Russian, Chinese

Research Series Issue 28 - Understanding the dynamics of adoption decisions and their poverty impacts. The case of improved maize seeds in Uganda

أغسطس 2018
This study estimates the impact of agricultural research, specifically improved maize seeds varieties, on agricultural productivity and welfare in Uganda using a three-wave panel survey.

Effective rural development: IFAD’s evidence-based approach to managing for results

يوليو 2018
This report reflects IFAD’s ongoing efforts to generate evidence to inform decision-making at the corporate and project level.

Research Series Issue 27 - Asia’s rural-urban disparity in the context of growing inequality

يوليو 2018
This paper uses the available cross-country data to analyse the causes for the increase in the disparity between rural and urban areas in Asia.

Research Series Issue 26 - Exploration of a methodology for assessing the impact of policy engagement. What impact and how to assess it?

يونيو 2018
Policy engagement is a difficult activity to accurately monitor and evaluate, particularly when development agencies are interested in attributing impact to their efforts.

Research Series Issue 25 - Structural transformation and poverty in Malawi. Decomposing the effects of occupational and spatial mobility

مايو 2018
This paper aims to identify the main drivers of poverty reduction in Malawi. Using an augmented poverty decomposition methodology, it explores in what way the different farm and non-farm economic activities contribute to poverty reduction and income growth.

Research Series Issue 24 - Influence of nutrition-sensitive interventions on dietary profiles of smallholder farming households in East and Southern Africa

مايو 2018
This paper aims to explore the influence of nutrition-sensitive interventions on dietary profiles of the beneficiaries of IFAD-funded projects.

Journal of Law and Rural Development - Issue 2: Renewable Energy and Rural Development

مايو 2018
The Journal of Law and Rural Development provides a forum where the link between law and rural development can be explored.

Research Series Issue 23 - The Effect of the Sectoral Composition of Economic Growth on Rural and Urban Poverty

أبريل 2018
This paper analyses the channels through which growth reduces poverty by evaluating the relationship between the sectoral composition of economic growth and the rural-urban composition of poverty.

Research Series Issue 22 - Poverty reduction during the rural-urban transformation

أبريل 2018
This paper analyses the relation between urbanization and poverty reduction, by exploring the role of secondary towns, mega cities and rural non-agricultural sector in relation to poverty reduction.

Research Series Issue 21 - Does relative deprivation induce migration? Evidence from sub-Saharan Africa

مارس 2018
This paper challenges the traditional view that portrays income maximization as the main driver of migration and tests whether relative deprivation and social inequality lead to migration in sub-Saharan Africa. Examining data from the Living Standards Measurements Study – Integrated Surveys in Agriculture (LSMS-ISA) from Tanzania, Ethiopia, Malawi, Nigeria and Uganda, the paper finds that a household’s migration decision is based not only on its well-being status, but also on the position of the household relative to the wealth distribution in the local community. Results indicate that relative deprivation of wealth was positively associated with migration, implying a need to renew the discussion of relative deprivation and social inequality as a cause of migration in sub-Saharan Africa.

Developing nutrition-sensitive value chains in Indonesia

فبراير 2018
In Indonesia’s eastern Maluku and North Maluku provinces, malnutrition levels are high. Nutrition challenges include monotonous diets with inadequate levels of energy, micronutrients and protein. Studies commissioned by IFAD suggest that strengthened value chains for foods such as bananas, cassava, maize, spinach, sweet potatoes and fish could make business sense for smallholders and lay the foundations for a strong local food system that sustainably delivers nutritious foods for healthy diets.

Mapeo Participativo - Diálogos y acuerdos entre actores

يناير 2018
Este trabajo surge de la sistematización de cuatro experiencias de resolución pacífica de conflictos territoriales por la tierra, el agua y otros recursos naturales usando el mapeo participativo. La metodología aplicada incluye la identificación del problema y luego el mapeo participativo como iniciador del diálogo, la incidencia pública y la generación de acuerdos.

Research Series Issue 20 - Transformation and Diversification of the Rural Economy in Asia

يناير 2018
This paper examines the transformation and diversification of the rural economy in Asia, focusing on the role and importance of the rural non-farm economy and employment in economic transformation and related diversification of employment and income opportunities for rural communities.

Research Series Issue 19 - Measuring Women's Empowerment in Agriculture: A Streamlined Approach

ديسمبر 2017
The Women’s Empowerment in Agriculture Index (WEAI) can be a useful tool to measure the empowerment, agency and inclusion of women in the agriculture sector. However, computing the WEAI in its current form involves large data requirements, resulting in lengthy surveys with several questions on various dimensions and indicators within each dimension. This paper proposes a reduced version of the WEAI, or the R-WEAI, and examines two possible approaches to reduce the data requirements while ensuring comparability to the full WEAI.

The Marine Advantage: Empowering coastal communities, safeguarding marine ecosystems

نوفمبر 2017
Agriculture and fisheries, the backbone of food security and nutrition for coastal communities and globally, are under threat.

Research Series Issue 18 - Do agricultural support and cash transfer programmes improve nutritional status?

نوفمبر 2017
Cash transfer and agricultural support programmes are both used to improve nutrition outcomes in developing countries. This paper examines previous reviews of the impact of these programmes and compares the evidence between the two. The paper finds that, although there are about the same number of programmes of each type, many more papers have been written about the cash transfer programmes than the agricultural programmes. While evidence suggests that both programme types improved the quality of food consumption, the paper concludes that both types show weak evidence of improvements in anthropometric outcomes.

Impact Assessment: Smallholder Dairy Commercialization Programme (SDCP)

أكتوبر 2017
The Smallholder Dairy Commercialization Programme (SDCP) aimed to foster market-driven development of the informal dairy sector in Kenya.

Research Series Issue 17 - Population age structure and sex composition in sub-Saharan Africa: A rural-urban perspective

أكتوبر 2017
This study describes the shifting age and sex patterns of populations across rural and urban sectors in sub‑Saharan Africa from 1980 to 2015. It examines the relationship between the slowdown in urbanization and rural and urban age structure gaps, sex composition and dependency ratios. Findings show that rural-urban migration of young adults plays a key role in explaining dependency ratios and sex compositional gaps in rural and urban areas. Results also highlight the value of taking into account local age and sex structures to better prepare for the demographic dividend and other consequences of demographic shifts in sub-Saharan Africa.

The State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World 2017

سبتمبر 2017
This year’s edition of The State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World marks the beginning of a new era in monitoring the progress made towards achieving a world without hunger and malnutrition, within the framework of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Specifically, the report will henceforth monitor progress towards both the targets of ending hunger and all forms of malnutrition. It will also include thematic analyses of how food security and nutrition are related to progress on other SDG targets. Given the broadened scope to include a focus on nutrition, UNICEF and the World Health Organization (WHO) have joined the traditional partnership of FAO, IFAD and WFP in preparing this annual report. We hope our expanded partnership will result in a more comprehensive and integral understanding of what it will take to end hunger and all forms of malnutrition, and in more-integrated actions to achieve this critical goal.

IFAD Results Series Issue 2

أغسطس 2017
This issue presents and analyses experiences from the following IFAD-funded projects and programmes: Ethiopia: Pastoral Community Development Project; Nepal: Leasehold Forestry and Livestock Programme; Palestine: Participatory Natural Resource Management Programme; Peru: Project for Strengthening Assets, Markets and Rural Development in the Northern Highlands (Sierra Norte); Sierra Leone: Rehabilitation and Community-based Poverty Reduction Project

Research Series Issue 16 - Getting the most out of impact evaluation for learning, reporting and influence

يوليو 2017
This paper describes the Participatory Impact Assessment and Learning Approach (PIALA) which was developed and piloted by IFAD. The approach aims to produce rigorous qualitative and quantitative evidence that can be used not only to identify and assess the impacts of development projects, but also to promote learning and improved understanding of the associated processes and pathways of socio-economic change. Illustrated with cases from Viet Nam and Ghana, the paper assesses the value of the approach for collaborative learning and reporting for IFAD’s country programming and global policy engagement, as well as for the wider development community.

Research Series Issue 15 - Remittances, growth and poverty reduction in Asia

يوليو 2017
Remittances have increased in low-income and lower- middle-income countries in recent years, playing an important role as a stable source of finance at the macro-level, and in poverty reduction at the micro-level. Drawing on a critical review of the literature and econometric analyses based on cross-country panel data, this study examines the relationships among remittances, growth and poverty reduction in Asia and the Pacific and highlights policy implications to be considered by governments and policy-makers.

Research Series Issue 14 - Disbursement performance of the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD)

يونيو 2017
This paper investigates the trends and the influencing factors of IFAD’s project disbursement performance over the past 20 years. Based on data from 577 projects in 111 countries, the study finds that disbursement of funds are often delayed and time-consuming. Using econometric analysis, the study assesses the internal and external factors affecting the amount and timeliness of disbursements, and provides important lessons on how international financial institutions such as IFAD can better monitor and manage this important aspect of their development effectiveness.

Research Series Issue 13 - Graduation models for rural financial inclusion

مايو 2017
Graduation out of chronic poverty has recently been receiving considerable attention by the global development community for its potential synergies with social protection, microfinance and livelihoods development approaches to poverty reduction. This paper examines the evidence regarding the effectiveness of graduation strategies in reducing extreme poverty, with a focus on rural households, and proposes a new analytical framework to support future work on graduation as a learning and adaptation process in development practice.

Research Series Issue 12 - An evidence-based assessment of IFAD’s end-of-project reporting

مايو 2017
Project Completion Reports (PCRs) are a critical tool for development organizations, both for accountability purposes, and as a means of learning from project experience to inform the design of future operations. This paper analyses a sample of PCRs from IFAD to assess the extent to which evidence is used to determine a project's effectiveness in bringing about development. The report finds that most claims on results are not supported by evidence, and discusses implications for the objective measurement of development effectiveness.

Research Series Issue 11 - Food safety, trade, standards and the integration of smallholders into value chains

مارس 2017
This paper analyses how food safety challenges and requirements affect smallholder farmers' access to markets. High food safety standards in destination countries force governments of developing countries to make strategic choices about establishing domestic standards and upgrading the infrastructure and knowledge base of smallholder farmers. The paper suggests mechanisms that can be used to respond to these challenges, to enable smallholder inclusion in different markets.

IFAD Results Series Issue 1

مارس 2017
This issue presents and analyses experiences from the following IFAD-funded projects and programmes: Brazil: Sustainable Development Project for Agrarian Reform; Settlements in the Semi-arid North-east (Dom Hélder Câmara Project); China: South Gansu Poverty Reduction Programme; Ghana: Rural Enterprises Programme; Morocco: Rural Development Project in the Mountain Zones of Al-Haouz Province; Uganda: Vegetable Oil Development Project.

Journal of Law and Rural Development - Issue 1: Land governance

فبراير 2017
This is the first issue of the Journal of Law and Rural Development, published by IFAD. IFAD’s mandate to address rural poverty and promote rural development is unique among international organizations. For many years IFAD limited its activities to financing projects and programmes implemented by its Member States, but over the last decade it has begun to transform itself into a knowledge centre and a key participant in the international policy dialogue around rural development issues. The launch of this journal is another step forward in this transformation.

Research Series Issue 10 - Inclusive finance and inclusive rural transformation

يناير 2017
This paper provides an overview of concepts, issues and research on the relationship between financial inclusion and inclusive rural transformation. It demonstrates how changing demand for financial services, innovations in rural finance, and different investment strategies affect the interplay of supply and demand.

Research Series Issue 9 - Social protection and inclusive rural transformation

يناير 2017
This paper analyses how different types of social protection interventions affect rural livelihoods. It examines how these interventions can help rural transformation by increasing productivity and asks how they can influence inclusiveness. Using country-level evidence, it suggests that the effectiveness of social protection depends upon specific contexts and combinations of interventions, and asks what this means for building policy.

Research Series Issue 8 - Fostering inclusive rural transformation in fragile states and situations

يناير 2017
This paper seeks to answer three main questions: (i) What are fragile states and situations and how do they relate to issues of inclusive structural and rural transformation? (ii) In three selected case studies of diverse fragile situations (in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the Republic of Haiti and the Republic of the Sudan – drawing on IFAD financed programme and country experience), what have been the key elements of structural and rural transformation and to what extent has rural transformation been inclusive? (iii) In these cases, how does fragility affect the inclusiveness of rural transformation? Which policies and approaches can successfully promote inclusive rural transformation in fragile situations?

Research Series Issue 7 - Measuring IFAD's Impact

ديسمبر 2016
This paper examines the impact of IFAD-supported projects so as to learn lessons for future projects. It analyses the different methods used by IFAD to measure a project's impact, finds that IFAD is improving the well-being of rural people, and recommends that impact assessments be built into future projects from their inception.

Research Series Issue 6 - Why food and nutrition security matters for inclusive structural and rural transformation

سبتمبر 2016
This paper challenges current thinking on the connection between rural transformation and food security & nutrition. It advocates that improving rural and structural transformation has a positive cyclical effect upon communities by improving food availability, access, supplies and utilization which in turn improves the health and education of communities. Using evidence from across the developing world, the paper creates a policy agenda to maximise potential for smallholder farming to transform local economies.

Rural Development Report 2016: Fostering inclusive rural transformation

سبتمبر 2016
The 2016 Rural Development Report focuses on inclusive rural transformation as a central element of the global efforts to eliminate poverty and hunger, and build inclusive and sustainable societies for all. It analyses global, regional and national pathways of rural transformation, and suggests four categories into which most countries and regions fall, each with distinct objectives for rural development strategies to promote inclusive rural transformation: to adapt, to amplify, to accelerate, and a combination of them.

Data on trends in structural transformation, rural transformation and rural poverty

سبتمبر 2016
The data table shows the key variables used in the 2016 Rural Development Report (RDR). The data covers the period 1990-2014.

Research Series Issue 5 - Rural-urban linkages and food systems in sub-Saharan Africa

يوليو 2016
This paper examines the role of rural-urban linkages in fostering inclusive and sustainable food systems and how these contribute to rural transformation and, more broadly, to sustainable and inclusive development. Focusing on sub-Saharan Africa, the paper analyses the interdependencies between rural and urban areas and points to the key roles played by rural-based populations and producers, particularly smallholders, in promoting inclusive, mutually beneficial and sustainable urbanization.

Research Series Issue 4 - The effects of smallholder agricultural involvement on household food consumption and dietary diversity: Evidence from Malawi

مايو 2016
This paper investigates how household agricultural involvement affects food consumption and dietary diversity in rural Malawi. It analyses the relationship between on-farm income shares and the caloric consumption levels and shares across food groups. It finds that while food consumption and dietary diversity increase with agricultural involvement, the quality of diets does not improve. It highlights the importance of income diversification to dietary diversity and the need for investments in nutrition-sensitive agricultural value chains, nutrition education and crop diversification programmes.

Research Series Issue 3 - Fostering inclusive outcomes in African agriculture: improving agricultural productivity and expanding agribusiness opportunities

أبريل 2016
This paper looks at the role of agriculture in fostering inclusive and sustainable development in Sub-Saharan Africa. It discusses how improving agricultural productivity, smallholder access to markets and expanding agribusiness opportunities can accelerate transformation, investment and industrialization. The paper presents key investment and policy elements to be considered and points to the centrality of smallholders for the rural transformation process to be inclusive.

Research Series Issue 2 - Migration and Transformative Pathways

مارس 2016
This paper analyses the role of migration in promoting rural livelihoods and discusses how migration interacts with transformative economic processes. Focusing on migration out of rural areas, it examines the impacts of migration on rural livelihoods and challenges the perspective that sees rural outmigration as a failure of rural development.

Insights from Participatory Impact Evaluations in Ghana and Vietnam

فبراير 2016
This paper by Adinda Van Hemelrijck and Irene Guijt explores how impact evaluation can live up to standards broader than statistical rigour in ways that address challenges of complexity and enable stakeholders to engage meaningfully. A Participatory Impact Assessment and Learning. Approach (PIALA) was piloted to assess and debate the impacts on rural poverty of two government programmes in Vietnam and Ghana funded by the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD).

Methodological Reflections following the second PIALA Pilot in Ghana

يناير 2016
IFAD has to report to its Members States on the total number of rural people lifted out of poverty1. The government programmes it funds, however, are implemented in complex ways and environments that challenge mainstream evaluation practice. The challenge for IFAD and its co- implementing and co-funding partners, moreover, is not just to rigorously assess impact but also to understand the processes generating impact in order to realize its ambitious targets (IFAD, 2011). Albeit a strong emphasis on quantitative measurement, there is a need for impact evaluation that fosters learning and responsibility.

Research Series Issue 1 - Agricultural and rural development reconsidered

يناير 2016
This paper is a guide to current debates about agricultural development. It analyses the changes in development approaches and thinking in recent decades and explores today's critical issues in agricultural and rural development policy. With the main focus on Africa, the paper also includes insights from Asia and Latin America.

Changing lives through IFAD water investments: a gender perspective

ديسمبر 2015
The following study was designed by IFAD in order to contribute to the knowledge about the relationship between gender, water investment and time saving. It is also intended to contribute to gender mainstreaming in IFAD’s water projects. The focus of the study is to see how much time women and men gain when they have improved access to sources of water and to establish what individuals, particularly women, do with the time they save by not having to walk long distances in search of water. The study further aims to discover to what extent the projects/investments contribute to reducing drudgery and to achieving equitable workloads between men and women. The survey targeted ongoing projects from the five regions in which IFAD operates that were either in their second phase or a mature stage of operation. In each project, one community was covered and 24 households were targeted. The survey successfully covered seven communities and 140 households and was mainly conducted through project officers facilitated by country programme managers or country programme officers.

Executive summary, final report on the participatory impact evaluation of the Root & Tuber Improvement & Marketing Programme in Ghana

نوفمبر 2015
This document presents the findings from the impact evaluation of the Root & Tuber Improvement and Marketing Program (RTIMP) in Ghana. The program was executed by the Ministry of Food and Agriculture (MoFA), Government of Ghana (GoG) from 2007 until end of 2014, and co-financed by the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) for a total amount of US$ 18.83 million.

Strengthening Country-Level Agricultural Advisory Services in the target countries of Burkina Faso, Malawi, Mozambique, Sierra Leone and Uganda

نوفمبر 2015
The African Forum for Agricultural Advisory Services (AFAAS) goal is to increase use of improved knowledge and technologies by agricultural value chain actors through efficient, effective and synergistic linkages and partnerships between Agricultural Extension and Advisory Services (AEAS) of member Countries to improve the delivery of these services to farmers.

Enabling rural transformation and grassroots institutional building for sustainable land management and increased incomes and food security

نوفمبر 2015
The enabling rural transformation and grassroots institutional building for sustainable land management and increased incomes and food security, referred to as the Strengthening Rural Institutions (SRI) project was undertaken by the World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF) Eastern and Southern Africa Region since 2011.

Development of innovative site-specific integrated animal health packages

نوفمبر 2015
Livestock contribute to the livelihoods of roughly 70 per cent of the world’s poor, supporting farmers, consumers, traders and laborers throughout the developing world. The increasing demand for livestock products for the growing populations of developing countries, particularly in Africa, offers new market opportunities for poor farmers in rural areas. Success in raising small-farmer productivity leads to improvements in household food security, nutrition and income, leading to poverty reduction. However, in vast areas of sub-Saharan Africa, increased and sustained animal production by small farmers is greatly hampered by livestock diseases. Animal diseases severely constrain livestock enterprises of smallholder livestock keepers in sub-Saharan Africa but are not given the attention they deserve by the global community

Zipping up the Evidence - Dealing with non-counterfactuals in Viet Nam and Ghana

سبتمبر 2015
Participatory Impact Assessment and Learning Approach (PIALA)

An Innovative, Scalable, Pro-poor Home Cooking-based Charcoal Production Value Chain For Women

سبتمبر 2015
With a small grant, INBAR has innovated Household Charcoal (HHC) production from cooking with firewood into a new livelihood opportunity and sustainable value chain for the economic empowerment of poor rural women. Women from poor rural households in Ethiopia, India and Tanzania were trained to put out fires when they had finished cooking to prevent smouldering, collect household charcoal through the clusters and process it into briquettes. INBAR has also developed the NCPP Social Enterprise Model which is an Innovative & Inclusive Institutional system to strengthen the rural development ecosystem and enable safe investment opportunities for rural women.

Smart ICT for Weather and Water Information and Advice to Smallholders in Africa

مارس 2015
The primary objective of the project was to promote innovative approaches and ICT-based technologies for timely transfer of weather, water-and crop related information and advice to relevant end users in Africa for informed decision-making and enhanced negotiation capacity with water and farm-related service providers.

Enabling Land Management, Resilient Pastoral Livelihoods and Poverty Reduction in Africa

مارس 2015
The World Initiative for Sustainable Pastoralism (WISP) is a global knowledge and advocacy network that promotes understanding of sustainable pastoral development for both poverty reduction and sustainable environmental management. WISP was executed by the International Union for Nature Conservation (IUCN). The Programme built the capacity of pastoral institutions to engage in advocacy based on state-of-the-art global learning on sustainable pastoralism, enabling pastoralist institutions around the world to network and shared experiences and opportunities, and ensured that the voice of pastoralists remained central to policy discourse and learning.

Performance of IPAF small projects Desk review 2015

فبراير 2015
The objective of the IFAD Indigenous Peoples Assistance Facility (IPAF) is to strengthen indigenous peoples’ communities and their organizations by financing small projects that foster their self-driven development in the framework of the UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, and to generate lessons learned and approaches for replication and up-scaling.

Insights and lessons learned from the reflections on the PIALA piloting in Vietnam

نوفمبر 2014
Under the 9th Replenishment, IFAD committed to moving 80 million rural people out of poverty cumulative from 2010 onwards to 2015, and conducting 30 rigorous impact assessments. Hence the urgent need for appropriate methodologies for impact assessment. To respond to this need, a few piloting initiatives have been launched, one of which is the Improved Learning Initiative (ILI) 2. This initiative aims to develop a potentially scalable Participatory Impact Assessment and Learning Approach (PIALA) that can help IFAD and its partners collaboratively assess, explain and debate its contributions to rural poverty impact. The PIALA design and piloting is funded by IFAD’s DFID-financed Innovation Mainstreaming Initiative (IMI) and BMGF’s Measurement, Learning and Evaluation Unit in the Agricultural Development Program; and with important contributions from IFAD’s Country Program Offices and partners in the pilot countries (Vietnam and Ghana), and its Strategy & Knowledge Management and Program Management Departments.

Participatory Impact Assessment and Learning Approach (PIALA) - Results and reflections from the impact evaluation of RTIMP in Viet Nam

يونيو 2014
Improved Learning Initiative for the design of a Participatory Impact Assessment & Learning Approach (PIALA) in Viet Nam.

New Directions for Smallholder Agriculture

مارس 2014
This book examines the growing divergence between subsistence and business oriented small farms, and discusses how this divergence has been impacted by population growth, trends in farm size distribution, urbanization, off-farm income diversification, and the globalization of agricultural value chains.

Performance of IPAF small projects: Desk review 2011

نوفمبر 2011
In June 2006, the World Bank and IFAD agreed to transfer the World Bank’s Grants Facility for Indigenous Peoples to IFAD. In September, the transfer was approved by IFAD’s Executive Board. This marked the beginning of the IFAD Indigenous Peoples Assistance Facility (IPAF), which issues public calls for proposals and makes small grants to support indigenous and tribal peoples throughout the world. Development projects financed through IPAF aim to improve indigenous peoples’ access to key decision-making processes, empower indigenous peoples to find solutions to the challenges they face, and respond to indigenous peoples’ holistic perspectives. The projects build on indigenous culture, identity, knowledge, natural resources, intellectual property and human rights. This report, prepared by an independent consultant, provides an overview of the performance of 53 small IPAF-funded projects in delivering results and improving the lives of their target groups. About 45,000 people directly benefited from these projects, and more than half of them were women. Project services reached about 1,200 communities. Primary project activities were training and individual capacity-building in such topics as security of tenure, natural resource management, agricultural technologies, traditional medicine, indigenous peoples’ rights, community programming, literacy and HIV/AIDS prevention.

Rural Poverty Report 2011

نوفمبر 2010
“The problem today is that no matter how hard you work, it’s never enough to feed the family…” “For about a year, perhaps more, there have been no rains… That is why people are suffering…” “Without education a person can do nothing…” “The men have left to work outside the village. The main labour force here is women…” These are first-hand accounts of just a few of the men, women and young people who were interviewed for this report. Their stories give us vital insight into what it is like to live in today’s changing reality of rural poverty. Listening to their experiences – and learning from them – is essential if we are to comprehend that reality. And it is the first step in identifying appropriate and effective solutions to turn rural areas from backwaters into places where the young people of today can find opportunities to work their way out of poverty, and where they will want to live and to raise their own children. We need a clear understanding of what the face of poverty looks like now, a basket of practical solutions to today’s myriad challenges and a coherent approach for tackling the evolving challenges of the future. This report provides all three. IFAD’s Rural Poverty Report 2011 – New realities, new challenges: new opportunities for tomorrow’s generation, is an in-depth study of rural poverty. The findings in the report come from a collaboration among dozens of experts in the field of poverty reduction – both inside and outside IFAD. They also come from the poor rural people themselves.

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