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Scaling up note: Sudan
The analysis underlying the results-based country strategic opportunities programme for the Republic of the Sudan (RB-COSOP) developed in 2013 identified major constraints on the reduction of rural poverty. These included prolonged conflicts, the separation of South Sudan (2008), reduced oil revenues for the Government of Sudan; greatly increased numbers of people and livestock reliant on static technologies; environmentally and economically unsustainable pressures on finite natural resources exacerbated by the negative impacts of climate change; and little residual capacity within the public sector, all within a problematic geopolitical environment.
Scaling up note: Bangladesh
Bangladesh has recently been classified as a lower-middle-income country and aims to reach upper-middle-income country status by 2021. To achieve this, the Government of Bangladesh will need to overcome considerable challenges in agricultural development and rural economic growth. The country’s annual GDP growth averaged about 6 per cent between 2000 and 2013, and was accompanied by a decline in the national poverty rate from 48.9 per cent to 31.5 per cent over the first decade of the century, effectively lifting some 16 million people out of poverty.
Scaling up note: China
In terms of population, China, with 1.35 billion people, is the largest country in the world. It is the first developing country to achieve the United Nations Millennium Development Goal (MDG) of reducing by half the number of its people living in extreme poverty and hunger, and only 6.3 per cent of the population were estimated to be living in extreme poverty in 2013. Substantial progress has been made with respect to overall development and China is now considered in the high human development category of UNDP’s Human Development Index, ranking 91 out of 187 countries.
Scaling up note: Mauritania
In recent years, Mauritania has enjoyed political stability, with the June 2014 presidential elections taking place peacefully. In addition, the country registered a robust growth rate of 6.7 per cent in 2013 and continues to be characterized by macroeconomic stability. The country, however, remains exposed to vulnerabilities related to lack of diversification, international price volatility and reliance on foreign inflows. While it has succeeded in increasing per capita income in recent years, income distribution has remained relatively unchanged for the last two decades, and the challenges of unemployment remain daunting. Sound management of natural resources is essential to foster inclusive and long-term growth.
Scaling up note: Indonesia
Indonesia is the largest economy in South-East Asia and has developed rapidly over the past decade into a competitive and decentralized electoral democracy with a fast growing middle class. Despite the country's positive progress in reducing poverty, vulnerability and inequality remain high. Nearly 40 per cent of Indonesians are highly vulnerable to shocks, which can push them back below the poverty line.
Toolkit: Integrated homestead food production
Since its founding, IFAD has focused on enabling smallholder farmers to increase agricultural production and productivity as a means for reducing poverty. However, experience shows that increased productivity and incomes do not automatically translate into improved nutritional status of poor rural people, especially women, young people and children.
Lessons learned: Integrated homestead food production (IHFP)
This note presents lessons learned on integrated homestead food production (IHFP) emerging from projects and programmes implemented by IFAD and other development actors around the world. It aims to complement the How To Do Note (HTDN) on the same subject by illustrating success stories and good practices through case studies.
How to do note: Integrated homestead food production (IHFP)
Integrated homestead food production (IHFP) is considered to be a nutrition-sensitive, pro-poor and women-controlled approach to household food production that includes vegetable and fruit gardens, backyard livestock-raising and small fish ponds. It can enhance poor rural people’s access to a variety of nutritious fresh foods, grown in close proximity to their households and requiring relatively limited human, financial and productive resources. The how to do note provides operational guidance on how to design and implement projects that incorporate IHFP.
How to do note: Fisheries, Aquaculture and Climate Change
Fisheries and aquaculture are important contributors to food security and livelihoods at household, local, national and global levels. However, while aquaculture production is growing rapidly throughout the world, particularly in Asia and Africa, many of the world’s fisheries are at grave risk from human pressures, including overexploitation, pollution and habitat change. Climate change is compounding these pressures, posing very serious challenges and limiting livelihood opportunities.
Zipping up the Evidence - Dealing with non-counterfactuals in Viet Nam and Ghana
Participatory Impact Assessment and Learning Approach (PIALA)
دراسة نموذج الحیاة الأسریة، أوغندا
توضّح دراسة الحالة كيف تم استخدام نموذج الحیاة الأسریة في أوغندا، مع تسلیط الضوء على أداء كل منهجیة في سیاقها المحدد.
نهج العمل المنهجیات الأسریة
توفّر دلیلاً مفصّلاً حول كیفیة تطبیق المنهجیات الأسریة. وتتضمن وصفاً للأنشطة على المستوى الأسري، والنهج المختلفة في تطبیق المنهجیات الأسریة، وموفّري الخدمات، ونظام المیسّرین، بالإضافة إلى دور المجتمع المحلي والبیئة الأشمل. وتوضّح النقاط الأساسیة الواجب أخذها بعین الاعتبار عند إدماج المنهجیات الأسریة في تصمیم المشروعات وتنفیذها.
How to do note: Climate change risk assessments in value chain projects
This HTDN is directed primarily at the design phase of IFAD value chain projects, though it does have some relevance for both pre-design and implementation phases.
How To Do Note: Measuring Climate Resilience
This How To Do Note is intended as a tool for IFAD staff and partners involved in investment projects with climate resilience objectives.
How to do note: Mainstreaming portable biogas systems into IFAD-supported projects
Access to modern renewable energy services is a key factor in eradicating poverty and ensuring food security.
Toolkit: Youth Access to Rural Finance
With the mounting awareness of the unmet demand for youth financial services and the growing evidence that serving young people is viable, there is also a need to assess and document the implications for rural areas. This toolkit on Youth Access to Rural Finance aims to contribute to filling that gap. The Lessons Learned and How To Do Note on this topic provide IFAD country programme managers, project design teams and implementing partners with insights and key guidance on designing and offering appropriate financial services for rural youth. The toolkit on Youth Access to Rural Finance synthesizes best practices and offers examples from around the world.
Lessons learned: Youth Access to Rural Finance
Although there have been improvements in YFS access, youth are still lagging significantly behind adults in being able to access financial tools. Across high- and low-income countries, young people are less likely than adults to have a formal account. There are even starker differences related to a country’s income level, with 21 per cent of youth in low-income economies having a formal account compared with 61 per cent in upper-middle-income economies (Demirguc-Kunt et al., 2013). Even with this data, determining the exact extent of youth access to financial services can be complicated because there is a lack of consistent data and definitions on youth (see Box 3). The lack of data is more limited for rural areas. While there is some analysis of the urban-rural gap in access to financial services, with those living in cities significantly more likely to have an account than rural residents (Klapper, 2012), there are currently no comprehensive studies with disaggregated data for rural youth.
Scaling up note: Nutrition-sensitive agriculture and rural development
In 1977, IFAD made improving “the nutritional level of the poorest populations in developing countries” one of the principal objectives of its founding agreement. Since then, governments, civil society and development organizations also have come to recognize the central importance of nutrition – which comprises undernutrition, micronutrient deficiencies and overweight – to development.
ملاحظة لتوسيع النطاق: إدارة المياه الزراعية
يعتبر الماء ذو أهمية أساسية للتنمية البشرية والبيئة والاقتصاد. الوصول إلى الماء والأمن المائي أمر بالغ الأهمية لتحسين الأمن الغذائي ودخل وسبل عيش المجتمعات الريفية. لا يزال الوصول الموثوق إلى المياه يشكل عقبة رئيسية أمام ملايين المزارعين الفقراء، معظمهم من المزارعين في المناطق البعلية، ولكن أيضًا المشاركين في الزراعة المروية. يشكل تغير المناخ وأنماط هطول الأمطار المتغيرة الناتجة تهديدًا لكثير من المزارعين، الذين يخاطرون بفقدان الأمن المائي والانزلاق مرة أخرى إلى مصيدة الفقر.وبالتالي فمن الضروري تعزيز قدرة المجتمعات على تبني ونشر تقنيات إدارة المياه الزراعية.
Scaling up note: Gender equality and women’s empowerment
IFAD has achieved significant results in promoting innovative gender mainstreaming and pro-poor approaches and processes in its operations, making this an area of IFAD’s comparative advantage.